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      The Penetration Ability of Calcium Silicate Root Canal Sealers into Dentinal Tubules Compared to Conventional Resin-Based Sealer: A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Study

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration ability of calcium silicate root canal sealers and conventional resin-based sealer using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A total of 60 recently extracted single-rooted human premolars were used in this study. The root canals were prepared to a size 40/0.06 taper with ProFile rotary instruments and irrigated with NaOCl and EDTA. After drying all canals, the specimens were randomly divided into three experimental groups ( n = 20): Group 1, gutta-percha (GP)/AH Plus with continuous wave compaction; group 2, GP/BioRoot RCS with a single-cone technique; and group 3, GP/Endoseal MTA with a single-cone technique. All experimental samples were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis using a low-speed diamond wheel at the apical, middle, and coronal third levels. The penetration abilities of all samples were evaluated using CLSM. A Kruskal–Wallis analysis and a series of Mann–Whitney U post hoc tests were performed. A higher intensity level was found in the coronal area and a lower intensity level in the apical area in all the experimental groups. The AH Plus group showed higher sum fluorescence intensity in the apical and coronal thirds compared with the BioRoot RCS and Endoseal MTA groups, whereas the BioRoot RCS group showed a higher intensity level in the middle third, similar to the AH Plus group. The maximum sealer penetration depth was low in the apical area and high in the coronal area in the AH Plus and Endoseal MTA groups. In the BioRoot RCS group, maximum sealer penetration was observed in the middle third. In conclusion, there were significant differences in sealer penetration pattern and distance according to the root level and sealer type.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Biomineralization ability and interaction of mineral trioxide aggregate and white portland cement with dentin in a phosphate-containing fluid.

          Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been shown to be bioactive because of its ability to produce biologically compatible carbonated apatite. This study analyzed the interaction of MTA and white Portland cement with dentin after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Dentin disks with standardized cavities were filled with ProRoot MTA, MTA Branco, MTA BIO, white Portland cement + 20% bismuth oxide (PC1), or PC1 + 10% of calcium chloride (PC2) and immersed in 15 mL of PBS for 2 months. The precipitates were weighed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction. The calcium ion release and pH of the solutions were monitored at 5, 15, 25, and 35 days. The samples were processed for SEM observations. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance or Kruskall-Wallis tests. Our findings revealed the presence of amorphous calcium phosphate precipitates with different morphologies. The apatite formed by the cement-PBS system was deposited within collagen fibrils, promoting controlled mineral nucleation on dentin, observed as the formation of an interfacial layer with tag-like structures. All the cements tested were bioactive. The cements release some of their components in PBS, triggering the initial precipitation of amorphous calcium phosphates, which act as precursors during the formation of carbonated apatite. This spontaneous precipitation promotes a biomineralization process that leads to the formation of an interfacial layer with tag-like structures at the cement-dentin interface.
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            Effects of physiological environments on the hydration behavior of mineral trioxide aggregate.

             Y. Lee (2004)
            Utilizing scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness tests, we evaluated how various physiological environments affect the hydration behavior and physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). We found that the microstructure of hydrated MTA consists of cubic and needle-like crystals. The former comprised the principal structure of MTA, whereas the later were less prominent and formed in the inter-grain spaces between the cubic crystals. MTA samples were hydrated in distilled water, normal saline, pH 7, and pH 5. However, no needle-like crystals were observed in the pH 5 specimens, and erosion of the cubic crystal surfaces was noted. XRD indicated a peak corresponding to Portlandite, a hydration product of MTA, and the peak decreased noticeably in the pH 5 group. The pH 5 specimens' microhardness was also significantly weaker compared to the other three groups (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that physiological environmental effects on MTA formation are determined, in part, by environmental pH and the presence of ions. In particular, an acidic environment of pH 5 adversely affects both the physical properties and the hydration behavior of MTA.
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              Periapical status and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations in a Danish population.

              The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of endodontic and coronal restorations and the association with periapical status in a Danish population. A total of 614 randomly selected individuals (20-60+ years of age) from Aarhus County had a full-mouth radiographic examination. The quality of endodontic and coronal restorations and the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth were assessed by radiographic criteria. Root fillings were categorized as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' with regard to root filling length and lateral seal. Coronal restorations were categorized into 'adequate' and 'inadequate', defined by the absence or presence of radiographic signs of overhangs or open margins. Results were analysed statistically using the chi-squared test. The total number of endodontically treated teeth was 773, and 52.3% had apical periodontitis (AP). Root-filled teeth with an adequate lateral seal had a lower incidence of AP than teeth with an inadequate seal (44.3% vs. 57.8%), and teeth with an adequate root filling length were associated with a better periapical status than teeth with inadequate length of the root filling (42.0% vs. 67.6%). Similarly, adequate coronal restorations were associated with better periapical status than inadequate restorations (48.0% vs. 63.9%). When both root filling and coronal restoration quality were assessed, the incidence of AP ranged from 31.2% (optimal quality) to 78.3% (all parameters scored as inadequate). Inadequate root canal and coronal restorations were associated with an increased incidence of AP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                11 February 2019
                February 2019
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07985, Korea; yemis@ 123456hanmail.net
                [2 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul St. Mary’s Dental Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea; dentkim@ 123456catholic.ac.kr (B.-S.K.); yongmin32@ 123456nate.com (Y.-M.K.)
                [3 ]College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea; dong524@ 123456naver.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jeui99@ 123456catholic.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-2258-1787
                Article
                materials-12-00531
                10.3390/ma12030531
                6385034
                30754612
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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