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      A potential role for RNA interference in controlling the activity of the human LINE-1 retrotransposon

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          Abstract

          Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1 or L1) comprise 17% of the human genome, although only 80–100 L1s are considered retrotransposition-competent (RC-L1). Despite their small number, RC-L1s are still potential hazards to genome integrity through insertional mutagenesis, unequal recombination and chromosome rearrangements. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that the LINE-1 retrotransposon is susceptible to RNA interference (RNAi). First, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated in vitro from an L1 template is converted into functional short interfering RNA (siRNA) by DICER, the RNase III enzyme that initiates RNAi in human cells. Second, pooled siRNA from in vitro cleavage of L1 dsRNA, as well as synthetic L1 siRNA, targeting the 5′-UTR leads to sequence-specific mRNA degradation of an L1 fusion transcript. Finally, both synthetic and pooled siRNA suppressed retrotransposition from a highly active RC-L1 clone in cell culture assay. Our report is the first to demonstrate that a human transposable element is subjected to RNAi.

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          Most cited references43

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          Nuclear export of microRNA precursors.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which function as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, are processed from larger transcripts by sequential action of nuclear and cytoplasmic ribonuclease III-like endonucleases. We show that Exportin-5 (Exp5) mediates efficient nuclear export of short miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) and that its depletion by RNA interference results in reduced miRNA levels. Exp5 binds correctly processed pre-miRNAs directly and specifically, in a Ran guanosine triphosphate-dependent manner, but interacts only weakly with extended pre-miRNAs that yield incorrect miRNAs when processed by Dicer in vitro. Thus, Exp5 is key to miRNA biogenesis and may help coordinate nuclear and cytoplasmic processing steps.
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            Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi.

            Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is carried out by RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex. RISC contains two signature components, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Argonaute family proteins. Here, we show that the multiple Argonaute proteins present in mammals are both biologically and biochemically distinct, with a single mammalian family member, Argonaute2, being responsible for messenger RNA cleavage activity. This protein is essential for mouse development, and cells lacking Argonaute2 are unable to mount an experimental response to siRNAs. Mutations within a cryptic ribonuclease H domain within Argonaute2, as identified by comparison with the structure of an archeal Argonaute protein, inactivate RISC. Thus, our evidence supports a model in which Argonaute contributes "Slicer" activity to RISC, providing the catalytic engine for RNAi.
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              RNA interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs.

              Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing in many organisms by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a Drosophila in vitro system, we demonstrate that 21- and 22-nt RNA fragments are the sequence-specific mediators of RNAi. The short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated by an RNase III-like processing reaction from long dsRNA. Chemically synthesized siRNA duplexes with overhanging 3' ends mediate efficient target RNA cleavage in the lysate, and the cleavage site is located near the center of the region spanned by the guiding siRNA. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the direction of dsRNA processing determines whether sense or antisense target RNA can be cleaved by the siRNA-protein complex.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                2005
                2005
                8 February 2005
                : 33
                : 3
                : 846-856
                Affiliations
                1Division of Molecular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope 1450 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010-3011, USA
                2Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope 1450 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010-3011, USA
                3Division of Molecular Genetics, Integrated DNA Technologies Inc. 1710 Commercial Park, Coralville, IA 53341-2760, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 626 301 8390; Fax: +1 626 301 8271; Email: jrossi@ 123456coh.org
                Article
                10.1093/nar/gki223
                549394
                15701756
                53de94f2-f9eb-48cd-a997-8d33d596caa8
                © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

                The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oupjournals.org

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                Genetics
                Genetics

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