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      Molecular Analysis of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Saudi Arabia: SLC26A7 Mutation Is a Novel Defect in Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

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          Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder, affecting one in 3000 to 4000 newborns. Since the introduction of a newborn screening program in 1988, more than 300 cases have been identified. The underlying genetic defects have not been systematically studied.


          To identify the mutation spectrum of CH-causing genes.


          Fifty-five patients from 47 families were studied by next-generation exome sequencing.


          Mutations were identified in 52.7% of patients (29 of 55) in the following 11 genes: TG, TPO, DUOX2, SLC26A4, SLC26A7, TSHB, TSHR, NKX2-1, PAX8, CDCA8, and HOXB3. Among 30 patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis, biallelic TG mutations were found in 12 patients (40%), followed by biallelic mutations in TPO (6.7%), SLC26A7 (6.7%), and DUOX2 (3.3%). Monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were found in two patients, one of them coexisting with two tandem biallelic deletions in SLC26A7. In 25 patients with thyroid dysgenesis, biallelic mutations in TSHR were found in six patients (24%). Biallelic mutations in TSHB, PAX 8, NKX2-1, or HOXB3 were found once in four different patients. A monoallelic CDCA8 mutation was found in one patient. Most mutations were novel, including three TG, two TSHR, and one each in DUOX2, TPO, SLC26A7, TSHB, NKX2-1, PAX8, CDCA8, and HOXB3. SLC26A7 and HOXB3 were novel genes associated with thyroid dyshormonogenesis and dysgenesis, respectively.


          TG and TSHR mutations are the most common genetic defects in Saudi patients with CH. The prevalence of other disease-causing mutations is low, reflecting the consanguineous nature of the population. SLC26A7 mutations appear to be associated with thyroid dyshormonogenesis.

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          Most cited references56

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          Thyroid development and its disorders: genetics and molecular mechanisms.

          Thyroid gland organogenesis results in an organ the shape, size, and position of which are largely conserved among adult individuals of the same species, thus suggesting that genetic factors must be involved in controlling these parameters. In humans, the organogenesis of the thyroid gland is often disturbed, leading to a variety of conditions, such as agenesis, ectopy, and hypoplasia, which are collectively called thyroid dysgenesis (TD). The molecular mechanisms leading to TD are largely unknown. Studies in murine models and in a few patients with dysgenesis revealed that mutations in regulatory genes expressed in the developing thyroid are responsible for this condition, thus showing that TD can be a genetic and inheritable disease. These studies open the way to a novel working hypothesis on the molecular and genetic basis of this frequent human condition and render the thyroid an important model in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating the size, shape, and position of organs.
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            Cohen syndrome is caused by mutations in a novel gene, COH1, encoding a transmembrane protein with a presumed role in vesicle-mediated sorting and intracellular protein transport.

            Cohen syndrome is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder whose diagnosis is based on the clinical picture of nonprogressive psychomotor retardation and microcephaly, characteristic facial features, retinal dystrophy, and intermittent neutropenia. We have refined the critical region on chromosome 8q22 by haplotype analysis, and we report the characterization of a novel gene, COH1, that is mutated in patients with Cohen syndrome. The longest transcript (14,093 bp) is widely expressed and is transcribed from 62 exons that span a genomic region of approximately 864 kb. COH1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 4,022 amino acids, with a complex domain structure. Homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS13 protein suggests a role for COH1 in vesicle-mediated sorting and transport of proteins within the cell.
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              Thyroid transcription factors in development, differentiation and disease.

              Identification of the thyroid transcription factors (TTFs), NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8 and HHEX, has considerably advanced our understanding of thyroid development, congenital thyroid disorders and thyroid cancer. The TTFs are fundamental to proper formation of the thyroid gland and for maintaining the functional differentiated state of the adult thyroid; however, they are not individually required for precursor cell commitment to a thyroid fate. Although knowledge of the mechanisms involved in thyroid development has increased, the full complement of genes involved in thyroid gland specification and the signals that trigger expression of the genes that encode the TTFs remain unknown. The mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and differentiation have provided clues to identifying the genes that are involved in human congenital thyroid disorders and thyroid cancer. Mutations in the genes that encode the TTFs, as well as polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications, have been associated with thyroid pathologies. Here, we summarize the roles of the TTFs in thyroid development and the mechanisms by which they regulate expression of the genes involved in thyroid differentiation. We also address the implications of mutations in TTFs in thyroid diseases and in diseases not related to the thyroid gland.

                Author and article information

                The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
                The Endocrine Society
                May 2018
                May 01 2018
                May 2018
                May 01 2018
                March 12 2018
                : 103
                : 5
                : 1889-1898
                [1 ]Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard Health Affairs, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
                [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Hospital, National Guard Health Affairs, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
                [6 ]Department of Pediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                © 2018


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