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      SHEA Guideline for Preventing Nosocomial Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureusand Enterococcus

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Infection control programs were created three decades ago to control antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections, but there has been little evidence of control in most facilities. After long, steady increases of MRSA and VRE infections in NNIS System hospitals, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Board of Directors made reducing antibiotic-resistant infections a strategic SHEA goal in January 2000. After 2 more years without improvement, a SHEA task force was appointed to draft this evidence-based guideline on preventing nosocomial transmission of such pathogens, focusing on the two considered most out of control: MRSA and VRE.

          Methods:

          Medline searches were conducted spanning 1966 to 2002. Pertinent abstracts of unpublished studies providing sufficient data were included.

          Results:

          Frequent antibiotic therapy in healthcare settings provides a selective advantage for resistant flora, but patients with MRSA or VRE usually acquire it via spread. The CDC has long-recommended contact precautions for patients colonized or infected with such pathogens. Most facilities have required this as policy, but have not actively identified colonized patients with surveillance cultures, leaving most colonized patients undetected and unisolated. Many studies have shown control of endemic and/or epidemic MRSA and VRE infections using surveillance cultures and contact precautions, demonstrating consistency of evidence, high strength of association, reversibility, a dose gradient, and specificity for control with this approach. Adjunctive control measures are also discussed.

          Conclusion:

          Active surveillance cultures are essential to identify the reservoir for spread of MRSA and VRE infections and make control possible using the CDC's long-recommended contact precautions.

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          Most cited references350

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          Randomized, Controlled Trials, Observational Studies, and the Hierarchy of Research Designs

          New England Journal of Medicine, 342(25), 1887-1892
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            Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis.

            A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if they contained the numbers of and mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics of the patients, adjustment for severity and comorbid illness, source of bacteremia, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality. When the results were pooled with a random-effects model, a significant increase in mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia was evident (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia.
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              The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

              Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections that are becoming increasingly difficult to combat because of emerging resistance to all current antibiotic classes. The evolutionary origins of MRSA are poorly understood, no rational nomenclature exists, and there is no consensus on the number of major MRSA clones or the relatedness of clones described from different countries. We resolve all of these issues and provide a more thorough and precise analysis of the evolution of MRSA clones than has previously been possible. Using multilocus sequence typing and an algorithm, BURST, we analyzed an international collection of 912 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. We identified 11 major MRSA clones within five groups of related genotypes. The putative ancestral genotype of each group and the most parsimonious patterns of descent of isolates from each ancestor were inferred by using BURST, which, together with analysis of the methicillin resistance genes, established the likely evolutionary origins of each major MRSA clone, the genotype of the original MRSA clone and its MSSA progenitor, and the extent of acquisition and horizontal movement of the methicillin resistance genes. Major MRSA clones have arisen repeatedly from successful epidemic MSSA strains, and isolates with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin, the antibiotic of last resort, are arising from some of these major MRSA clones, highlighting a depressing progression of increasing drug resistance within a small number of ecologically successful S. aureus genotypes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
                Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
                University of Chicago Press
                0899-823X
                1559-6834
                May 2003
                January 02 2015
                May 2003
                : 24
                : 5
                : 362-386
                Article
                10.1086/502213
                12785411
                53e0e6bb-bb86-4745-b2a5-a49a74ef9716
                © 2003

                https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms

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