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      A propósito de una nueva clasificación del embarazo a término: Resultados neonatales en una clínica de tercer nivel de atención en Cali, Colombia. Un estudio de corte transversal Translated title: In view of a new classification of term pregnancy neonatal outcomes in a level III clinic in Cali, Colombia: A cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: aplicar la clasificación del parto a término del American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG); describir la frecuencia de las diferentes categorías y hacer un análisis exploratorio de los resultados neonatales entre los grupos. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal. Se incluyeron gestantes consideradas inicialmente sanas, con embarazo a término definido según última menstruación confiable y ecografía en la primera mitad de la gestación, de una clínica privada de tercer nivel, de Cali (Colombia), año 2013. Los partos se clasificaron como parto a término temprano, a término y a término tardío. Se describen las características sociodemográficas maternas y los resultados perinatales, así como la frecuencia de cada categoría; la comparación de grupos se estableció a través de análisis de varianza (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis o chi cuadrado. Resultados: de 502 nacimientos, fueron clasificados como embarazos a término temprano 200 (39,8 %), completo 254 (50,6 %) y tardío 48 (9,6 %). Hubo mayor frecuencia de aseguramiento contributivo de la madre y embarazos de alto riesgo en el grupo a término temprano. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en bajo peso al nacer y peso promedio del neonato en el grupo a término temprano, y mayor asfixia neonatal en el grupo a término tardío. No hubo diferencias en cuanto a síndrome de dificultad respiratoria y tiempo de hospitalización. Conclusión: la nueva clasificación de embarazo a término de la ACOG es factible de aplicar. La frecuencia de parto a término temprano es alta en Colombia. No se evidenciaron diferencias significativas en los resultados neonatales entre los tres grupos excepto en la asfixia neonatal, que fue mayor en el grupo a término tardío.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: To apply the classification of term delivery of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, describe the frequency of the various categories, and explore neonatal outcomes among groups. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study including pregnant women considered initially healthy with a term pregnancy defined on the basis of the last reliable menstruation and ultrasound performed in the first half of the gestation period in a private, Level III clinic, in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. Deliveries were classified as early term, term and late term. Social and demographic characteristics of the mothers and perinatal outcomes are described. The frequency of each category is described and group comparisons are performed using the variance analysis (ANOVA),and the Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square test. Results: Of 502 births, 200 (39.8 %) were classified as early term, 354 (50.6 %) as full term, and 48 (9.6 %) as late term. There was a higher frequency of contributive insurance coverage and high risk pregnancies in the early term group. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of low birth weight and average neonatal weight in the early term group, whereas neonatal asphyxia was higher in the late term group. There were no differences in terms of respiratory distress syndrome or length of stay. Conclusion: It is feasible to apply the new ACOG term pregnancy classification. The frequency of early term delivery is high in Colombia. There was no evidence of significant differences in neonatal outcomes between the three groups except for higher neonatal asphyxia in the late term group.

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          Timing of elective repeat cesarean delivery at term and neonatal outcomes.

          Because of increased rates of respiratory complications, elective cesarean delivery is discouraged before 39 weeks of gestation unless there is evidence of fetal lung maturity. We assessed associations between elective cesarean delivery at term (37 weeks of gestation or longer) but before 39 weeks of gestation and neonatal outcomes. We studied a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing repeat cesarean sections performed at 19 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network from 1999 through 2002. Women with viable singleton pregnancies delivered electively (i.e., before the onset of labor and without any recognized indications for delivery before 39 weeks of gestation) were included. The primary outcome was the composite of neonatal death and any of several adverse events, including respiratory complications, treated hypoglycemia, newborn sepsis, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU). Of 24,077 repeat cesarean deliveries at term, 13,258 were performed electively; of these, 35.8% were performed before 39 completed weeks of gestation (6.3% at 37 weeks and 29.5% at 38 weeks) and 49.1% at 39 weeks of gestation. One neonatal death occurred. As compared with births at 39 weeks, births at 37 weeks and at 38 weeks were associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio for births at 37 weeks, 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 2.5; adjusted odds ratio for births at 38 weeks, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.7; P for trend <0.001). The rates of adverse respiratory outcomes, mechanical ventilation, newborn sepsis, hypoglycemia, admission to the neonatal ICU, and hospitalization for 5 days or more were increased by a factor of 1.8 to 4.2 for births at 37 weeks and 1.3 to 2.1 for births at 38 weeks. Elective repeat cesarean delivery before 39 weeks of gestation is common and is associated with respiratory and other adverse neonatal outcomes. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Clinical outcomes of near-term infants.

            To test the hypothesis that near-term infants have more medical problems after birth than full-term infants and that hospital stays might be prolonged and costs increased. Electronic medical record database sorting was conducted of 7474 neonatal records and subset analyses of near-term (n = 120) and full-term (n = 125) neonatal records. Cost information was accessed. Length of hospital stay, Apgar scores, clinical diagnoses (temperature instability, jaundice, hypoglycemia, suspicion of sepsis, apnea and bradycardia, respiratory distress), treatment with an intravenous infusion, delay in discharge to home, and hospital costs were assessed. Data from 90 near-term and 95 full-term infants were analyzed. Median length of stay was similar for near-term and full-term infants, but wide variations in hospital stay were documented for near-term infants after both vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Near-term and full-term infants had comparable 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores. Nearly all clinical outcomes analyzed differed significantly between near-term and full-term neonates: temperature instability, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, and jaundice. Near-term infants were evaluated for possible sepsis more frequently than full-term infants (36.7% vs 12.6%; odds ratio: 3.97) and more often received intravenous infusions. Cost analysis revealed a relative increase in total costs for near-term infants of 2.93 (mean) and 1.39 (median), resulting in a cost difference of 2630 dollars (mean) and 429 dollars (median) per near-term infant. Near-term infants had significantly more medical problems and increased hospital costs compared with contemporaneous full-term infants. Near-term infants may represent an unrecognized at-risk neonatal population.
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              Adverse neonatal outcomes associated with early-term birth.

              Full-term neonates born between 37 and 41 weeks' gestational age have been considered a homogeneous, low-risk group. However, recent evidence from studies based on mode of delivery has pointed toward increased morbidity associated with early-term cesarean section births (37-38 weeks) compared with term neonates (39-41 weeks).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rcog
                Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología
                Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol
                Federación Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología; Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología (Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
                0034-7434
                December 2016
                : 67
                : 4
                : 271-277
                Affiliations
                [02] Cali orgnameUniversidad Santiago de Cali orgdiv1Estadística y Epidemiología orgdiv2Investigación Grupo GISAP Colombia
                [03] Cali orgnameUniversidad Libre de Cali orgdiv1Medicina y residencia en Ginecología y Obstetricia Colombia
                [04] orgnameUniversidad Santiago de Cali orgdiv1Epidemiología orgdiv2Dirección Grupo GISAP
                [01] Cali orgnameUniversidad Libre de Cali orgdiv1Coordinación de posgrado en Ginecología y Obstetricia orgdiv2Dirección Grupo interinstitucional de Obstetricia y Ginecología (GiGyO) Colombia
                Article
                S0034-74342016000400002
                10.18597/rcog.1065
                53f28c47-a5cc-46c3-a7cc-bcf205c8c295

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 26 October 2015
                : 26 October 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 14, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Colombia


                recién nacido,pregnancy,term delivery,premature birth,premature labour,Newborn,embarazo,trabajo de parto prematuro,nacimiento prematuro,nacimiento a término,parto

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