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      Associations of Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer and Optic Nerve Head Parameters with Visual Field Sensitivity in Advanced Glaucoma

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          Purpose: To evaluate the associations of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (mGCIPLT), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters with visual field (VF) sensitivity in advanced glaucoma. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 102 eyes from 102 patients with advanced glaucoma (defined as a 24-2 VF mean deviation (MD) of ≤−12 dB) were included. mGCIPLT, cpRNFLT, and ONH parameters (including the rim area, average cup-to-disc [C:D] ratio, and vertical C:D ratio) were measured using Cirrus high-definition OCT, and 24-2 and 10-2 VF sensitivity tests were performed using standard automated perimetry. Pearson correlations and linear models were used to analyze relationships between OCT-derived parameters and VF parameters. Results: The mGCIPLT and rim area were significantly positively correlated with the 24-2 VF MD, 24-2 VF pattern standard deviation, 24-2 VF visual field index, and 10-2 VF MD, but cpRNFLT was not significantly correlated with VF parameters. In addition, the average and vertical C:D ratios were significantly negatively correlated with VF parameters. The mGCIPLT and rim area were significantly positively correlated with the 10-2 VF MD ( r ranging between 0.542 and 0.621, p < 0.001), while the average and vertical C:D ratios were significantly negatively correlated with the 10-2 VF MD ( r = −0.537, p < 0.001, and r = −0.428, p < 0.001, respectively). Each 1-µm change in the average mGCIPLT was associated with an approximately 0.368-dB change in the 24-2 VF MD and 0.677-dB change in the 10-2 VF MD ( R<sup>2</sup> = 0.268, p < 0.001, and R<sup>2</sup> = 0.385, p < 0.001, respectively). The 10-2 VF MD showed a significantly stronger association with inferonasal mGCIPLT than did the 24-2 VF MD in advanced glaucoma ( p = 0.007). Conclusions: mGCIPLT and ONH parameters were associated with the severity of VF damage and reflected functional damage better than cpRNFLT in advanced glaucoma. Our results suggested that structural measurements of mGCIPLT and ONH parameters and functional measurement of the 10-2 VF may be useful for monitoring progression in advanced glaucoma.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number of affected people in 2020 and 2040. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data from 50 population-based studies (3770 POAG cases among 140,496 examined individuals and 786 PACG cases among 112 398 examined individuals). We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science for population-based studies of glaucoma prevalence published up to March 25, 2013. Hierarchical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the pooled glaucoma prevalence of the population aged 40-80 years along with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Projections of glaucoma were estimated based on the United Nations World Population Prospects. Bayesian meta-regression models were performed to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and the relevant factors. Prevalence and projection numbers of glaucoma cases. The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40-80 years is 3.54% (95% CrI, 2.09-5.82). The prevalence of POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%; 95% CrI, 2.08-7.35), and the prevalence of PACG is highest in Asia (1.09%; 95% CrI, 0.43-2.32). In 2013, the number of people (aged 40-80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040. In the Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23-1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83-4.06), and people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas (OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19-2.04). The number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040, disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. These estimates are important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and related public health strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                March 2021
                30 July 2020
                : 64
                : 2
                : 310-320
                Jiangxi Clinical Research Center for Ophthalmic Disease, Jiangxi Research Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China
                Author notes
                *Xu Zhang, Jiangxi Clinical Research Center for Ophthalmic Disease, Jiangxi Research Institute of, Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University, 463 Bayi Rd., Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China), xuzhang19@163.com
                510572 Ophthalmic Res 2021;64:310–320
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 11
                Research Article


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