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      The Golden jackal ( Canis aureus) as an indicator animal for Trichinella britovi in Iran Translated title: Le chacal doré ( Canis aureus) comme animal indicateur de Trichinella britovi en Iran

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 1 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Trichinella britovi, Carnivore, Iran, Multiplex PCR, epidemiology

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          Abstract

          Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox ( Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals ( Canis aureus), and one wild boar ( Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp. larvae were retrieved using the artificial digestion method and identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. Larvae identified as Trichinella britovi were detected in five stray dogs (1.7%) and one golden jackal (8.3%). The results confirm the circulation of T. britovi in animals of the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, as previously documented. A review of the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals in Iran showed that these parasites were previously detected in 20.02% and 0.04% of carnivore and omnivore mammals, respectively, and that golden jackals can be screened as indicator animals for these zoonotic nematodes. Convenient sampling of Trichinella susceptible roadkill animals may provide a suitable method of monitoring the circulation of these parasites within any given region.

          Translated abstract

          Les nématodes du genre Trichinella sont des parasites zoonotiques causant la trichinellose. En Iran, ces parasites sont présents chez plusieurs espèces animales et des rares cas humains ont été enregistrés. Pour surveiller le profil épidémiologique de ces parasites dans la province de Khorasan-Razavi, au nord-est de l’Iran, les tissus musculaires ont été prélevés sur la langue de 295 chiens errants, un renard roux ( Vulpes vulpes), 12 chacals dorés ( Canis aureus) et un sanglier ( Sus scrofa), tués sur les routes, en 2016-2017. Les larves de Trichinella spp. ont été récupérées en utilisant la méthode de digestion artificielle et identifiées au niveau de l’espèce par PCR multiplex. Des larves identifiées comme Trichinella britovi ont été détectées chez cinq chiens errants (1,7%) et un chacal doré (8,3%). Les résultats confirment la circulation de T. britovi chez les animaux de la province de Khorasan-Razavi, comme cela a été précédemment documenté. Une revue de la littérature sur Trichinella spp. chez les animaux d’Iran a montré que ces parasites avaient déjà été détectés chez 20,02% et 0,04% des mammifères carnivores et omnivores, respectivement, et que les chacals dorés peuvent être criblés comme animaux indicateurs de ces nématodes zoonotiques. Un échantillonnage pratique des animaux sensibles à Trichinella tués sur les routes peut fournir une bonne méthode pour surveiller la circulation de ces parasites dans une région donnée.

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          Most cited references 25

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          New pieces of the Trichinella puzzle.

          Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesise biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalising the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The identification of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Hosts and habitats of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi in Europe.

            Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are the two most common species of Trichinella circulating in Europe. Based on data provided to the International Trichinella Reference Centre over the past 20 years (data referring to 540 isolates of T. spiralis and 776 isolates of T. britovi), we describe the host species and habitat characteristics for these two pathogens in Europe. A Geographical Information System was constructed using administrative boundaries, a Corine Land Cover (CLC) map, and an elevation map. In most countries, T. britovi is more widespread (62.5-100% of the isolates) than T. spiralis (0.0-37.5%), although in Finland, Germany, Poland and Spain, T. spiralis is more prevalent (56.3-84.2% of the isolates). Trichinella britovi is more widespread than T. spiralis in sylvatic carnivores (89% versus 11%), whereas T. spiralis is prevalent in both wild boars (62% versus 38%) and domestic swine (82% versus 18%), as well as in rodents (75% versus 25%). Trichinella spiralis and T. britovi circulate in the same environments: 41.1% and 46.0%, respectively, in agricultural areas, and 45.5% and 46.6% in forested and semi-natural areas. Although both pathogens can be transmitted by domestic and sylvatic cycles, their epidemiology is strongly influenced by the higher adaptability of T. spiralis to swine and of T. britovi to carnivores. These results are important because they include information on the countries at risk for these pathogens, the role played by specific species as reservoirs, the role of the pathogens in domestic and sylvatic cycles, and the role of the habitat in their circulation. The results can also be used to identify the most suitable animal species for the monitoring of these pathogens in Europe.
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              Experimental studies in pigs on Trichinella detection in different diagnostic matrices.

               C Kapel,  E Pozio,  P Boireau (2005)
              A total of 72 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and Iberian pigs (three animals per group) were inoculated with 200, 1000 or 20,000 muscle larvae of T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis. For each animal, the muscle larva burden was evaluated in nine muscle samples by digestion. The anti-Trichinella IgG kinetics in blood samples, taken twice prior and at days 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 post-inoculation, and in muscle juice, obtained at necropsy, was evaluated by an ELISA using an excretory/secretory antigen. The mean larval recovery rate in SPF/Iberian pigs corresponded with the level of inoculum dose, and tongue, diaphragm and masseter were identified as predilection muscles. In SPF and Iberian pigs receiving 20,000 larvae of T. spiralis, an earlier seroconversion was detected from day 25 post-inoculation. At a 10-fold dilution, the muscle juice showed a good test agreement with blood serum.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                10 May 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad Iran
                [2 ] Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Mogaddase@ 123456mums.ac.ir
                Article
                parasite180030 10.1051/parasite/2018030
                10.1051/parasite/2018030
                5944338
                29745365
                © A. Shamsian et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article

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