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      Construction of a High-Density Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Growth- and Sex-Related Traits in Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)

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          Abstract

          A high-density genetic linkage map is of particular importance in the fine mapping for important economic traits and whole genome assembly in aquaculture species. The channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus), a species native to North America, is one of the most important commercial freshwater fish in the world. Outside of the United States, China has become the major producer and consumer of channel catfish after experiencing rapid development in the past three decades. In this study, based on restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), a high-density genetic linkage map of channel catfish was constructed by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a F 1 family composed of 156 offspring and their two parental individuals. A total of 4,768 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups (LGs), and the length of the linkage map reached 2,480.25 centiMorgans (cM) with an average distance of 0.55 cM between loci. Based on this genetic linkage map, 223 genomic scaffolds were anchored to the 29 LGs of channel catfish, and a total length of 704.66 Mb was assembled. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genome-wide association analysis identified 10 QTLs of sex-related and six QTLs of growth-related traits at LG17 and LG28, respectively. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism, including spata2, spata5, sf3, zbtb38, and fox, were identified within QTL intervals on the LG17. A sex-linked marker with simple sequence repeats (SSR) in zbtb38 gene of the LG17 was validated for practical verification of sex in the channel catfish. Thus, the LG17 was considered as a sex-related LG. Potential growth-related genes were also identified, including important regulators such as megf9, npffr1, and gas1. In a word, we constructed the high-density genetic linkage map and developed the sex-linked marker in channel catfish, which are important genetic resources for future marker-assisted selection (MAS) of this economically important teleost.

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          SLAF-seq: An Efficient Method of Large-Scale De Novo SNP Discovery and Genotyping Using High-Throughput Sequencing

          Large-scale genotyping plays an important role in genetic association studies. It has provided new opportunities for gene discovery, especially when combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies. Here, we report an efficient solution for large-scale genotyping. We call it specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). SLAF-seq technology has several distinguishing characteristics: i) deep sequencing to ensure genotyping accuracy; ii) reduced representation strategy to reduce sequencing costs; iii) pre-designed reduced representation scheme to optimize marker efficiency; and iv) double barcode system for large populations. In this study, we tested the efficiency of SLAF-seq on rice and soybean data. Both sets of results showed strong consistency between predicted and practical SLAFs and considerable genotyping accuracy. We also report the highest density genetic map yet created for any organism without a reference genome sequence, common carp in this case, using SLAF-seq data. We detected 50,530 high-quality SLAFs with 13,291 SNPs genotyped in 211 individual carp. The genetic map contained 5,885 markers with 0.68 cM intervals on average. A comparative genomics study between common carp genetic map and zebrafish genome sequence map showed high-quality SLAF-seq genotyping results. SLAF-seq provides a high-resolution strategy for large-scale genotyping and can be generally applicable to various species and populations.
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            High throughput SNP discovery and genotyping in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by combining a re-sequencing approach and SNPlex technology

            Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of DNA sequence polymorphisms. Their higher availability and stability when compared to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) provide enhanced possibilities for genetic and breeding applications such as cultivar identification, construction of genetic maps, the assessment of genetic diversity, the detection of genotype/phenotype associations, or marker-assisted breeding. In addition, the efficiency of these activities can be improved thanks to the ease with which SNP genotyping can be automated. Expressed sequence tags (EST) sequencing projects in grapevine are allowing for the in silico detection of multiple putative sequence polymorphisms within and among a reduced number of cultivars. In parallel, the sequence of the grapevine cultivar Pinot Noir is also providing thousands of polymorphisms present in this highly heterozygous genome. Still the general application of those SNPs requires further validation since their use could be restricted to those specific genotypes. Results In order to develop a large SNP set of wide application in grapevine we followed a systematic re-sequencing approach in a group of 11 grape genotypes corresponding to ancient unrelated cultivars as well as wild plants. Using this approach, we have sequenced 230 gene fragments, what represents the analysis of over 1 Mb of grape DNA sequence. This analysis has allowed the discovery of 1573 SNPs with an average of one SNP every 64 bp (one SNP every 47 bp in non-coding regions and every 69 bp in coding regions). Nucleotide diversity in grape (π = 0.0051) was found to be similar to values observed in highly polymorphic plant species such as maize. The average number of haplotypes per gene sequence was estimated as six, with three haplotypes representing over 83% of the analyzed sequences. Short-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies within the analyzed sequences indicate the existence of a rapid decay of LD within the selected grapevine genotypes. To validate the use of the detected polymorphisms in genetic mapping, cultivar identification and genetic diversity studies we have used the SNPlex™ genotyping technology in a sample of grapevine genotypes and segregating progenies. Conclusion These results provide accurate values for nucleotide diversity in coding sequences and a first estimate of short-range LD in grapevine. Using SNPlex™ genotyping we have shown the application of a set of discovered SNPs as molecular markers for cultivar identification, linkage mapping and genetic diversity studies. Thus, the combination a highly efficient re-sequencing approach and the SNPlex™ high throughput genotyping technology provide a powerful tool for grapevine genetic analysis.
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              A simplified protocol for routine total DNA isolation from salmonid fishes

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-8021
                26 March 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenzhen, China
                2National Genetic Breeding Center of Channel Catfish, Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing, China
                3The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm , Nanjing, China
                4Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, Beijing Genomics Institute , Shenzhen, China
                5BGI-Zhenjiang Institute of Hydrobiology , Zhenjiang, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Peng Xu, Xiamen University, China

                Reviewed by: Yun Li, Ocean University of China, China; Costas S. Tsigenopoulos, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), Greece

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Livestock Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics

                Article
                10.3389/fgene.2019.00251
                6448050
                Copyright © 2019 Zhang, Zhang, Chen, Xu, Wang, Qin, Zhong, Jiang, Zhu, Liu, Shao, Zhu, Shi, Bian and You.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 81, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System 10.13039/501100010038
                Categories
                Genetics
                Original Research

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