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      Histone crotonylation specifically marks the haploid male germ cell gene expression program: post-meiotic male-specific gene expression.

      Bioessays

      Animals, Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly, Gene Expression, Genes, X-Linked, Genes, Y-Linked, Haploidy, Histone Deacetylases, genetics, metabolism, Histones, Male, Mammals, Meiosis, Sex Chromosomes, Spermatocytes, cytology, Spermatogenesis, Testis, Transcriptional Activation

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          Abstract

          The haploid male germ cell differentiation program controls essential steps of male gametogenesis and relies partly on a significant number of sex chromosome-linked genes. These genes need to escape chromosome-wide transcriptional repression of sex chromosomes, which occurs during meiosis and is largely maintained in post-meiotic cells. A newly discovered histone lysine modification, crotonylation (Kcr), marks X/Y-linked genes that are active in post-meiotic male germ cells. Histone Kcr, by conferring resistance to transcriptional repressors, could be a dominant element in maintaining these genes active in the globally repressive environment of haploid cell sex chromosomes. Furthermore, the same mark was found associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes. Histone Kcr therefore appears to be an indicator of the male haploid cell gene expression program and a notable element of genome programming in the post-meiotic phases of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

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          Journal
          22170506
          10.1002/bies.201100141

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