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      Nephroprotective Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus Extracts and Carvedilol on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Urolithiasis: Roles of NF-κB, p53, Bcl-2, Bax and Bak

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          Abstract

          This study was designed to assess the nephroprotective effects of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus aqueous extracts and carvedilol on hyperoxaluria-induced urolithiasis and to scrutinize the possible roles of NF-κB, p53, Bcl-2, Bax and Bak. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of mushrooms’ aqueous extracts were also performed and revealed the presence of multiple antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components. Hyperoxaluria was induced in Wistar rats through the addition of 0.75% ( v/ v) ethylene glycol in drinking water for nine weeks. The ethylene glycol-administered rats were orally treated with Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg) and carvedilol (30 mg/kg) daily during the last seven weeks. The study showed that Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus and carvedilol all successfully inhibited ethylene glycol-induced histological perturbations and the elevation of serum creatinine, serum urea, serum and urinary uric acid, serum, urinary and kidney oxalate, urine specific gravity, kidney calcium, kidney NF-κB, NF-κB p65, NF-κB p50, p53, Bax and Bak expressions as well as serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Moreover, the treatment decreased the reduction in urinary creatinine, urinary urea, ratios of urinary creatinine to serum creatinine and urinary urea to serum urea, Fex Urea and Bcl-2 expression in kidney. In conclusion, although Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus extracts and carvedilol all significantly inhibited the progression of nephrolithiasis and showed nephroprotective effects against ethylene glycol-induced kidney dysfunction, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus seemed to be more effective than carvedilol. Moreover, the nephroprotective effects may be mediated via affecting NF-κB activation, extrinsic apoptosis and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.

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          Most cited references 148

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          Control of apoptosis by Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors.

          Apoptosis is a physiological process critical for organ development, tissue homeostasis, and elimination of defective or potentially dangerous cells in complex organisms. Apoptosis can be initiated by a wide variety of stimuli, which activate a cell suicide program that is constitutively present in most vertebrate cells. In diverse cell types, Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors have been shown to have a role in regulating the apoptotic program, either as essential for the induction of apoptosis or, perhaps more commonly, as blockers of apoptosis. Whether Rel/NF-kappaB promotes or inhibits apoptosis appears to depend on the specific cell type and the type of inducer. An understanding of the role of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors in controlling apoptosis may lead to the development of therapeutics for a wide variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative and immune diseases, and cancer.
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            NF-kappaB in renal inflammation.

            The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors regulates the induction and resolution of inflammation. Two main pathways, classical and alternative, control the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Classical NF-kappaB activation is usually a rapid and transient response to a wide range of stimuli whose main effector is RelA/p50. The alternative NF-kappaB pathway is a more delayed response to a smaller range of stimuli resulting in DNA binding of RelB/p52 complexes. Additional complexity in this system involves the posttranslational modification of NF-kappaB proteins and an ever-increasing range of co-activators, co-repressors, and NF-kappaB complex proteins. Collectively, NF-kappaB regulates the expression of numerous genes that play a key role in the inflammatory response during human and experimental kidney injury. Multiple stimuli activate NF-kappaB through the classical pathway in somatic renal cells, and noncanonical pathway activation by TWEAK occurs in acute kidney injury. Under most test conditions, specific NF-kappaB inhibitors tend to reduce inflammation in experimental kidney injury but not always. Although many drugs in current use clinically influence NF-kappaB activation, there are no data regarding specific NF-kappaB inhibition in human kidney disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                14 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 10
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef P.O. 62521, Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; ihazza@ 123456ksu.edu.sa
                [3 ]Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minya P.O. 61519, Egypt
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef P.O. 62521, Egypt; shima_k81@ 123456vet.bsu.edu.eg
                [5 ]Sohag General Hospital, Sohag 42511, Egypt; mrjb4225@ 123456gmail.com
                [6 ]The Scientific Office of Pharma Net Egypt Pharmaceutical Company, Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Egypt
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: osamamoha@ 123456yahoo.com or osama.ahmed@ 123456science.bsu.edu.eg (O.M.A.); habdrabou@ 123456ksu.edu.sa (H.E.); Tel.: +20-100-108-4893 (O.M.A.); +966-544-796-482 (H.E.)
                Article
                biomolecules-10-01317
                10.3390/biom10091317
                7565610
                32937925
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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