This study was designed to assess the nephroprotective effects of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus aqueous extracts and carvedilol on hyperoxaluria-induced urolithiasis and to scrutinize the possible roles of NF-κB, p53, Bcl-2, Bax and Bak. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of mushrooms’ aqueous extracts were also performed and revealed the presence of multiple antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components. Hyperoxaluria was induced in Wistar rats through the addition of 0.75% ( v/ v) ethylene glycol in drinking water for nine weeks. The ethylene glycol-administered rats were orally treated with Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg) and carvedilol (30 mg/kg) daily during the last seven weeks. The study showed that Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus and carvedilol all successfully inhibited ethylene glycol-induced histological perturbations and the elevation of serum creatinine, serum urea, serum and urinary uric acid, serum, urinary and kidney oxalate, urine specific gravity, kidney calcium, kidney NF-κB, NF-κB p65, NF-κB p50, p53, Bax and Bak expressions as well as serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Moreover, the treatment decreased the reduction in urinary creatinine, urinary urea, ratios of urinary creatinine to serum creatinine and urinary urea to serum urea, Fex Urea and Bcl-2 expression in kidney. In conclusion, although Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus extracts and carvedilol all significantly inhibited the progression of nephrolithiasis and showed nephroprotective effects against ethylene glycol-induced kidney dysfunction, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus seemed to be more effective than carvedilol. Moreover, the nephroprotective effects may be mediated via affecting NF-κB activation, extrinsic apoptosis and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.