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      The matrix domain of the Gag protein from avian sarcoma virus contains a PI(4,5)P2-binding site that targets Gag to the cell periphery

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          Structural basis for targeting HIV-1 Gag proteins to the plasma membrane for virus assembly.

          During the late phase of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication, newly synthesized retroviral Gag proteins are targeted to the plasma membrane of most hematopoietic cell types, where they colocalize at lipid rafts and assemble into immature virions. Membrane binding is mediated by the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, a 132-residue polypeptide containing an N-terminal myristyl group that can adopt sequestered and exposed conformations. Although exposure is known to promote membrane binding, the mechanism by which Gag is targeted to specific membranes has yet to be established. Recent studies have shown that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)], a factor that regulates localization of cellular proteins to the plasma membrane, also regulates Gag localization and assembly. Here we show that PI(4,5)P(2) binds directly to HIV-1 MA, inducing a conformational change that triggers myristate exposure. Related phosphatidylinositides PI, PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(5)P, and PI(3,5)P(2) do not bind MA with significant affinity or trigger myristate exposure. Structural studies reveal that PI(4,5)P(2) adopts an "extended lipid" conformation, in which the inositol head group and 2'-fatty acid chain bind to a hydrophobic cleft, and the 1'-fatty acid and exposed myristyl group bracket a conserved basic surface patch previously implicated in membrane binding. Our findings indicate that PI(4,5)P(2) acts as both a trigger of the myristyl switch and a membrane anchor and suggest a potential mechanism for targeting Gag to membrane rafts.
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            Receptor-induced transient reduction in plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentration monitored in living cells.

            Although phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) is a well-characterized precursor for the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol [1] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [2], it also interacts with the actin-binding proteins profilin and gelsolin [3], as well as with many signaling molecules that contain pleckstrin homology (PH) domains [4]. It is conceivable that stimuli received by receptors in the plasma membrane could be sufficiently strong to decrease the PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentration; this decrease could alter the structure of the cortical cytoskeleton and modulate the activity of signaling molecules that have PH domains. Here, we tested this hypothesis by using an in vivo fluorescent indicator for PtdIns(4,5)P2, by tagging the PH domain of phospholipase C delta 1 (PLC-delta 1) with the green fluorescent protein (GFP-PH). When expressed in cells, GFP-PH was found to be enriched at the plasma membrane. Binding studies in vitro and mutant analysis suggested that GFP-PH bound PtdIns(4,5)P2 selectively over other phosphatidylinositol lipids. Strikingly, receptor stimulation induced a transient dissociation of GFP-PH from the plasma membrane, suggesting that the concentration of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane was effectively lowered. This transient dissociation was blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122 but was not affected by the phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that it is mostly mediated by PLC and not by PI 3-kinase activation. Overall, our studies show that PtdIns(4,5)P2 can have second messenger functions of its own, by mediating a transient dissociation of proteins anchored in the plasma membrane.
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              Phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate regulates HIV-1 Gag targeting to the plasma membrane.

              A critical early event in the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) particle assembly pathway is the targeting of the Gag protein to the site of virus assembly. In many cell types, assembly takes place predominantly at the plasma membrane. Cellular factors that regulate Gag targeting remain undefined. The phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] controls the plasma membrane localization of a number of cellular proteins. To explore the possibility that this lipid may be involved in Gag targeting and virus particle production, we overexpressed phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase IV, an enzyme that depletes cellular PI(4,5)P2, or overexpressed a constitutively active form of Arf6 (Arf6/Q67L), which induces the formation of PI(4,5)P2-enriched endosomal structures. Both approaches severely reduced virus production. Upon 5-phosphatase IV overexpression, Gag was no longer localized on the plasma membrane but instead was retargeted to late endosomes. Strikingly, in cells expressing Arf6/Q67L, Gag was redirected to the PI(4,5)P2-enriched vesicles and HIV-1 virions budded into these vesicles. These results demonstrate that PI(4,5)P2 plays a key role in Gag targeting to the plasma membrane and thus serves as a cellular determinant of HIV-1 particle production.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                December 07 2018
                December 07 2018
                December 07 2018
                October 11 2018
                : 293
                : 49
                : 18841-18853
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.RA118.003947
                © 2018

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