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      Role of Toll-Like Receptors and Their Downstream Molecules in the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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          Abstract

          Activation of innate immunity is associated with the development of liver disease, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the innate immune system, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sensors that recognize bacterial and viral components such as lipopolysaccharide, bacterial DNA, and peptidoglycan. Recent data have demonstrated that the liver is exposed to a high load of TLR ligands due to bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability in NAFLD. Upon stimulation by these TLR ligands, hepatic immune cells produce various mediators that are involved in host defense. On the other hand, these mediators alter lipid metabolism, insulin signaling, and cell survival. Indeed, some TLR-deficient mice demonstrate lesser degrees of NAFLD even though TLR ligands are increased. This paper will highlight the recent progress on the study of TLR signaling and their downstream molecules in the development of NAFLD.

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          Most cited references 124

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          The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.

          New therapeutic targets for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The gut microbial community (microbiota) is essential for processing dietary polysaccharides. We found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the distal intestine (cecum) of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days despite reduced food intake. Studies of GF and conventionalized mice revealed that the microbiota promotes absorption of monosaccharides from the gut lumen, with resulting induction of de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Fasting-induced adipocyte factor (Fiaf), a member of the angiopoietin-like family of proteins, is selectively suppressed in the intestinal epithelium of normal mice by conventionalization. Analysis of GF and conventionalized, normal and Fiaf knockout mice established that Fiaf is a circulating lipoprotein lipase inhibitor and that its suppression is essential for the microbiota-induced deposition of triglycerides in adipocytes. Studies of Rag1-/- animals indicate that these host responses do not require mature lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor that affects energy harvest from the diet and energy storage in the host. Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. AY 667702--AY 668946).
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            Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance.

            Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation. Seeking an inflammatory factor causative of the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, we have identified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a triggering factor. We found that normal endotoxemia increased or decreased during the fed or fasted state, respectively, on a nutritional basis and that a 4-week high-fat diet chronically increased plasma LPS concentration two to three times, a threshold that we have defined as metabolic endotoxemia. Importantly, a high-fat diet increased the proportion of an LPS-containing microbiota in the gut. When metabolic endotoxemia was induced for 4 weeks in mice through continuous subcutaneous infusion of LPS, fasted glycemia and insulinemia and whole-body, liver, and adipose tissue weight gain were increased to a similar extent as in high-fat-fed mice. In addition, adipose tissue F4/80-positive cells and markers of inflammation, and liver triglyceride content, were increased. Furthermore, liver, but not whole-body, insulin resistance was detected in LPS-infused mice. CD14 mutant mice resisted most of the LPS and high-fat diet-induced features of metabolic diseases. This new finding demonstrates that metabolic endotoxemia dysregulates the inflammatory tone and triggers body weight gain and diabetes. We conclude that the LPS/CD14 system sets the tone of insulin sensitivity and the onset of diabetes and obesity. Lowering plasma LPS concentration could be a potent strategy for the control of metabolic diseases.
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              Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue.

              Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We found that the expression of 1,304 transcripts correlated significantly with body mass. Of the 100 most significantly correlated genes, 30% encoded proteins that are characteristic of macrophages and are positively correlated with body mass. Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. Similar relationships were found in human subcutaneous adipose tissue stained for the macrophage antigen CD68. Bone marrow transplant studies and quantitation of macrophage number in adipose tissue from macrophage-deficient (Csf1op/op) mice suggest that these F4/80+ cells are CSF-1 dependent, bone marrow-derived adipose tissue macrophages. Expression analysis of macrophage and nonmacrophage cell populations isolated from adipose tissue demonstrates that adipose tissue macrophages are responsible for almost all adipose tissue TNF-alpha expression and significant amounts of iNOS and IL-6 expression. Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gastroenterol Res Pract
                GRP
                Gastroenterology Research and Practice
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-6121
                1687-630X
                2010
                17 January 2011
                : 2010
                Affiliations
                1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo Akita-shi, Akita 010-8543, Japan
                2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ian Nicholas Crispe

                Article
                10.1155/2010/362847
                3026974
                21274430
                Copyright © 2010 Kouichi Miura et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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