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      Resistance to antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment in age-related macular degeneration

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          Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in people aged over 65 years in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a positive regulator of angiogenesis and its proven role in the pathological neovascularization in wet AMD has provided evidence for the use of anti-VEGF agents as potential therapies. In this study, we review the literature for the possible causes of failure after treatment with anti-VEGF agents and attempt to propose an algorithm of suggestive actions to increase the chances of successful management of such difficult cases.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Humanization of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody for the therapy of solid tumors and other disorders.

          Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of angiogenesis associated with tumors and other pathological conditions, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The murine anti-human VEGF monoclonal antibody (muMAb VEGF) A.4.6.1 has been shown to potently suppress angiogenesis and growth in a variety of human tumor cells lines transplanted in nude mice and also to inhibit neovascularization in a primate model of ischemic retinal disease. In this report, we describe the humanization of muMAb VEGF A.4.6.1. by site-directed mutagenesis of a human framework. Not only the residues involved in the six complementarity-determining regions but also several framework residues were changed from human to murine. Humanized anti-VEGF F(ab) and IgG1 variants bind VEGF with affinity very similar to that of the original murine antibody. Furthermore, recombinant humanized MAb VEGF inhibits VEGF-induced proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo with potency and efficacy very similar to those of muMAb VEGF A.4.6.1. Therefore, recombinant humanized MAb VEGF is suitable to test the hypothesis that inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis is a valid strategy for the treatment of solid tumors and other disorders in humans.
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            Prevalence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

            The relationships of retinal drusen, retinal pigmentary abnormalities, and macular degeneration to age and sex were studied in 4926 people between the ages of 43 and 86 years who participated in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. The presence and severity of various characteristics of drusen and other lesions typical of age-related maculopathy were determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. One or more drusen were present in the macular area of at least 1 eye in 95.5% of the population. People 75 years of age or older had significantly higher frequencies (P less than 0.01) of the following characteristics than people 43 to 54 years of age: larger sized drusen (greater than or equal to 125 microns, 24.0% versus 1.9%), soft indistinct drusen (23.0% versus 2.1%), retinal pigment abnormalities (26.6% versus 7.3%), exudative macular degeneration (5.2% versus 0.1%), and geographic atrophy (2.0% versus 0%). These data indicate signs of age-related maculopathy are common in people 75 years of age or older and may pose a substantial public health problem.
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              Clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients.

              To clarify the clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japanese patients. Retrospective, observational, consecutive case series. Two hundred and eighty-nine patients with neovascular AMD were examined. The authors classified the patients into three subtypes of neovascular AMD: polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and typical AMD. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (54.7%) were diagnosed with PCV and 102 patients (35.3%) with typical AMD. RAP was observed in 13 patients (4.5%). In 16 patients (5.5%), one eye had PCV and the other eye had typical AMD. Most patients with PCV and typical AMD had unilateral disease (81.6% and 94.1%, respectively) with a male preponderance (77.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Nine of 13 patients with RAP were female (69.2%). Patients with RAP were older (mean, 80.3 years for men and 75.3 years for women) than patients with other subtypes. Serous and hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment developed in 69 patients (43.7%) with PCV, 22 patients (21.6%) with typical AMD, and nine patients (69.2%) with RAP. In the patients with unilateral disease in each subtype, large drusen in the unaffected eye were seen in 24.0% with PCV, 30.2% with typical AMD, and 77.8% with RAP. Neovascular AMD in Japanese patients has different demographic features compared with that in White patients. In Japanese patients, there is a preponderance of PCV, male gender, unilaterality, and absence of drusen in the second eye, with the exception of RAP.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                17 June 2013
                : 7
                : 485-490
                [1 ]Retina Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, “G Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ilias Georgalas, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, 59 Chrysanthemon St,15452 Athens, Greece, Tel +30 21 0776 8000, Fax +30 21 0776 8000, Email igeorgalas@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2013 Tranos et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                antivegf, age related macular degeneration, treatment


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