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      Association between the Hemoglobin Level and Cardiothoracic Ratio in Patients on Incident Dialysis

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          Background/Aim: The present study exploresassociations between hemoglobin (Hb) levels and patients with cardiac enlargement in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) to help prevent cardiac remodeling during the predialysis phase of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 2,249 patients with ESKD (age, 67 w 13 years; male, 67%; diabetic kidney disease, 41%) who started hemodialysis (HD) between January 2006 and October 2013 at eight participating hospitals. We examined associations between Hb levels immediately before the first HD session and cardiothoracic ratios (CTRs). Clinical factors associated with the CTR were also assessed. Results: The mean Hb level was 8.7 w 1.6 g/dl, and the mean and median CTRs were 55.0 and 54.7%, respectively. The correlation between the Hb level and the CTR was linear and negative (r = -0.129, p < 0.001). The mean CTR and the prevalence of patients with a CTR >50% obviously decreased with increasing Hb levels (both p < 0.001 for trend). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed an approximately 20% reduction in the odds ratio for complicating CTRs >50% per 1 g/dl increase in Hb. Hb levels of <9 g/dl were significantly associated with CTRs >50%. Numerical and categorical Hb remained significantly associated with CTRs >50% after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions: Lower Hb levels participate in progressive CTR enlargement in patients with ESKD, and maintaining Hb levels of >9 g/dl might help prevent cardiac remodeling during the predialysis phase of CKD. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 28

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          Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction.

          The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality and composite cardiovascular events among four GFR groups. The distribution of estimated GFR was wide and normally shaped, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 70+/-21 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. The prevalence of coexisting risk factors, prior cardiovascular disease, and a Killip class of more than I was greatest among patients with a reduced estimated GFR (less than 45.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), and the use of aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, or coronary-revascularization procedures was lowest in this group. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, each reduction of the estimated GFR by 10 units was associated with a hazard ratio for death and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes of 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12), which was independent of the treatment assignment. Even mild renal disease, as assessed by the estimated GFR, should be considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications after a myocardial infarction. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Predictors of early mortality among incident US hemodialysis patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

            Mortality risk among hemodialysis (HD) patients may be highest soon after initiation of HD. A period of elevated mortality risk was identified among US incident HD patients, and which patient characteristics predict death during this period and throughout the first year was examined using data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS; 1996 through 2004). A retrospective cohort study design was used to identify mortality risk factors. All patient information was collected at enrollment. Life-table analyses and discrete logistic regression were used to identify a period of elevated mortality risk. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) measuring associations between patient characteristics and mortality and to examine whether these associations changed during the first year of HD. Among 4802 incident patients, risk for death was elevated during the first 120 d compared with 121 to 365 d (27.5 versus 21.9 deaths per 100 person-years; P = 0.002). Cause-specific mortality rates were higher in the first 120 d than in the subsequent 121 to 365 d for nearly all causes, with the greatest difference being for cardiovascular-related deaths. In addition, 20% of all deaths in the first 120 d occurred subsequent to withdrawal from dialysis. Most covariates were found to have consistent effects during the first year of HD: Older age, catheter vascular access, albumin <3.5, phosphorus <3.5, cancer, and congestive heart failure all were associated with elevated mortality. Pre-ESRD nephrology care was associated with a significantly lower risk for death before 120 d (HR 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.83) but not in the subsequent 121- to 365-d period (HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27). This care was related to approximately 50% lower rates of both cardiac deaths and withdrawal from dialysis during the first 120 d. Mortality risk was highest in the first 120 d after HD initiation. Inadequate predialysis nephrology care was strongly associated with mortality during this period, highlighting the potential benefits of contact with a nephrologist at least 1 mo before HD initiation.
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              2008 Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy: guidelines for renal anemia in chronic kidney disease.

              The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) guideline committee, chaired by Dr Y. Tsubakihara, presents the Japanese guidelines entitled "Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease." These guidelines replace the "2004 JSDT Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients," and contain new, additional guidelines for peritoneal dialysis (PD), non-dialysis (ND), and pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Chapter 1 presents reference values for diagnosing anemia that are based on the most recent epidemiological data from the general Japanese population. In both men and women, hemoglobin (Hb) levels decrease along with an increase in age and the level for diagnosing anemia has been set at <13.5 g/dL in males and <11.5 g/dL in females. However, the guidelines explicitly state that the target Hb level in erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy is different to the anemia reference level. In addition, in defining renal anemia, the guidelines emphasize that the reduced production of erythropoietin (EPO) that is associated with renal disorders is the primary cause of renal anemia, and that renal anemia refers to a condition in which there is no increased production of EPO and serum EPO levels remain within the reference range for healthy individuals without anemia, irrespective of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In other words, renal anemia is clearly identified as an "endocrine disease." It is believed that defining renal anemia in this way will be extremely beneficial for ND patients exhibiting renal anemia despite having a high GFR. We have also emphasized that renal anemia may be treated not only with ESA therapy but also with appropriate iron supplementation and the improvement of anemia associated with chronic disease, which is associated with inflammation, and inadequate dialysis, another major cause of renal anemia. In Chapter 2, which discusses the target Hb levels in ESA therapy, the guidelines establish different target levels for hemodialysis (HD) patients than for PD and ND patients, for two reasons: (i) In Japanese HD patients, Hb levels following hemodialysis rise considerably above their previous levels because of ultrafiltration-induced hemoconcentration; and (ii) as noted in the 2004 guidelines, although 10 to 11 g/dL was optimal for long-term prognosis if the Hb level prior to the hemodialysis session in an HD patient had been established at the target level, it has been reported that, based on data accumulated on Japanese PD and ND patients, in patients without serious cardiovascular disease, higher levels have a cardiac or renal function protective effect, without any safety issues. Accordingly, the guidelines establish a target Hb level in PD and ND patients of 11 g/dL or more, and recommend 13 g/dL as the criterion for dose reduction/withdrawal. However, with the results of, for example, the CHOIR (Correction of Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Renal Insufficiency) study in mind, the guidelines establish an upper limit of 12 g/dL for patients with serious cardiovascular disease or patients for whom the attending physician determines high Hb levels would not be appropriate. Chapter 3 discusses the criteria for iron supplementation. The guidelines establish reference levels for iron supplementation in Japan that are lower than those established in the Western guidelines. This is because of concerns about long-term toxicity if the results of short-term studies conducted by Western manufacturers, in which an ESA cost-savings effect has been positioned as a primary endpoint, are too readily accepted. In other words, if the serum ferritin is <100 ng/mL and the transferrin saturation rate (TSAT) is <20%, then the criteria for iron supplementation will be met; if only one of these criteria is met, then iron supplementation should be considered unnecessary. Although there is a dearth of supporting evidence for these criteria, there are patients that have been surviving on hemodialysis in Japan for more than 40 years, and since there are approximately 20 000 patients who have been receiving hemodialysis for more than 20 years, which is a situation that is different from that in many other countries. As there are concerns about adverse reactions due to the overuse of iron preparations as well, we therefore adopted the expert opinion that evidence obtained from studies in which an ESA cost-savings effect had been positioned as the primary endpoint should not be accepted unquestioningly. In Chapter 4, which discusses ESA dosing regimens, and Chapter 5, which discusses poor response to ESAs, we gave priority to the usual doses that are listed in the package inserts of the ESAs that can be used in Japan. However, if the maximum dose of darbepoetin alfa that can currently be used in HD and PD patients were to be used, then the majority of poor responders would be rescued. Blood transfusions are discussed in Chapter 6. Blood transfusions are attributed to the difficulty of managing renal anemia not only in HD patients, but also in end-stage ND patients who respond poorly to ESAs. It is believed that the number of patients requiring transfusions could be reduced further if there were novel long-acting ESAs that could be used for ND patients. Chapter 7 discusses adverse reactions to ESA therapy. Of particular concern is the emergence and exacerbation of hypertension associated with rapid hematopoiesis due to ESA therapy. The treatment of renal anemia in pediatric CKD patients is discussed in Chapter 8; it is fundamentally the same as that in adults.

                Author and article information

                Cardiorenal Med
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                17 October 2014
                : 4
                : 3-4
                : 189-200
                aDivision of Nephrology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, bDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, The Jikei University Katsushika Medical Center, cDepartment of Nephrology, Musashino Red Cross Hospital, dDialysis Center, Kawakita General Hospital, eDepartment of Nephrology, Division of Internal Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, and fDepartment of Clinical Engineering, Tokyo Yamate Medical Center, Tokyo, gKidney Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya, hDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, iDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, and jDepartment of Nephrology, Rinku General Hospital, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                *Nobuhiko Joki, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, 2-17-6 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8515 (Japan), E-Mail jokinobuhiko@gmail.com
                368200 PMC4345519 Cardiorenal Med 2014;4:189-200
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Original Paper


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