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      Histoplasmosis and Tuberculosis Co-Occurrence in People with Advanced HIV

      1 , 2 , * , 3 , *

      Journal of Fungi

      MDPI

      histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, HIV, AIDS, co-occurrence, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment

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          Abstract

          Distinguishing between histoplasmosis, tuberculosis (TB), and co-occurrence of disease is a frequent dilemma for clinical staff treating people with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This problem is most frequently observed in clinical settings in countries where both diseases are endemic. It is also a challenge outside these endemic countries in HIV clinics that take care of patients coming from countries with endemic histoplasmosis and TB. The gold standard for diagnosis of both of these diseases is based on conventional laboratory tests (culture, histopathology and special stains). These tests have several limitations, such as lack of laboratory infrastructure for handling isolates (biosafety level 3), shortage of laboratory staff who have appropriate training and experience, variable analytical performance of tests and long turn-around time. Recently, novel rapid assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis and TB became available. However, this technology is not yet widely used. Mortality in immunocompromised patients, such as people with advanced HIV, is directly linked with the ability to rapidly diagnose opportunistic diseases. The aim of this review is to synthesize the main aspects of epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of histoplasmosis/TB co-occurrence in people with advanced HIV.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

          Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous treatment guidelines published in 2000 (Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30:688-95). The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them. Since 2000, several new antifungal agents have become available, and clinical trials and case series have increased our understanding of the management of histoplasmosis. Advances in immunosuppressive treatment for inflammatory disorders have created new questions about the approach to prevention and treatment of histoplasmosis. New information, based on publications from the period 1999-2006, are incorporated into this guideline document. In addition, the panel added recommendations for management of histoplasmosis in children for those aspects that differ from aspects in adults.
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            Tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients: a comprehensive review.

            The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is currently increasing in HIV-infected patients living in Africa and Asia, where TB endemicity is high, reflecting the susceptibility of this group of patients to mycobacteria belonging to the TB group. In this population, extension of multiple resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs is also a matter of anxiety. HIV-induced immunosuppression modifies the clinical presentation of TB, resulting in atypical signs and symptoms, and more frequent extrapulmonary dissemination. The treatment of TB is also more difficult to manage in HIV-infected patients, particularly with regard to pharmacological interactions secondary to inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes by protease inhibitors with rifampicin or rifabutin, respectively. Finally, immune restoration induced by highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries may be responsible for a paradoxical worsening of TB manifestations.
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              Diagnosis of histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients.

              To define the most appropriate studies for making a diagnosis of histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. As is true of all fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients, heightened awareness of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis is essential in making an early diagnosis. Increasingly, Histoplasma antigen detection is used to help establish a diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Most of the reported data are on patients with AIDS, but limited data suggest the usefulness of this assay in other immunosuppressed patients as well. False positive reactions occur with other fungal infections, especially blastomycosis, and patients who have histoplasmosis may have a false positive serum Aspergillus galactomannan assay. The identification of the yeast phase of Histoplasma capsulatum in tissue biopsy samples and, uncommonly, in circulating blood phagocytes is also helpful in establishing a diagnosis quickly. PCR techniques have yet to prove useful for the rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis, and serology is often negative in immunosuppressed patients. Culture remains definitive and should always be performed to confirm the results of the rapid diagnostic studies. Rapid techniques, mostly antigen detection in serum and urine and histopathological identification of Histoplasma capsulatum in tissues, are the most important rapid diagnostic tests for histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Fungi (Basel)
                J Fungi (Basel)
                jof
                Journal of Fungi
                MDPI
                2309-608X
                09 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 5
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
                [2 ]Studies in Translational Microbiology and Emerging Diseases (MICROS) Research Group, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, 11011 Bogota, Colombia
                [3 ]Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, 97306 Cayenne, French Guiana
                Author notes
                [†]

                Contributed equally.

                Article
                jof-05-00073
                10.3390/jof5030073
                6787747
                31404979
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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