Background/Aims : To assess, in a prospective cohort study of 238 renal transplant patients, our hypothesis that elevated ADMA levels may be influenced by physical exercise and obesity. Methods : Blood samples before and after six months were obtained from 116 transplant patients participating in an aerobic exercise (Group I). A control group consisted of 122 matched transplant patients who did not exercise regularly (Group II). Results : There were no significant differences in ADMA levels between both groups before the training program (Group I<sub>B</sub> vs Group II<sub>B</sub>). After six months of exercise, ADMA levels in Group I decreased (Group I<sub>B</sub> vs Group I<sub>A</sub> : 3.50 ± 0.45 vs 2.11 ± 0.35μmol/L; p< 0.01) and were lower compared to those in Group II (Group I<sub>A</sub> vs Group II<sub>A</sub> : 2 11 ± 0 23 vs 3 25 ± 0 34μmol/L; p< 0 01) Analysis of our results in obese renal transplant recipients (BMI B 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) confirmed a smaller effect of exercise training (Group I<sub>BO</sub> vs Group I<sub>AO</sub> : 3 75 ± 0 52 vs 3 45 ± 0 45; p< 0 05 and Group I<sub>AO</sub> vs Group II<sub>AO</sub> : 3.45 ± 0.45 vs 3.74 ± 0.62; p<0.05). Blood lipids, HbA<sub>1C</sub>, insulin, and systolic BP were also affected by the training program. Conclusion : Elevated ADMA levels were significantly decreased by early exercise after renal transplantation. The effect of exercise was smaller in obese patients.