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      Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammation and injury

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common type of fatal stroke, accounting for about 15% to 20% of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are associated with high mortality and morbidity, and increasing evidence shows that innate immune responses and inflammatory injury play a critical role in ICH-induced neurological deficits. However, the signaling pathways involved in ICH-induced inflammatory responses remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to a large family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in innate immunity and inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the involvement of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation and brain injury. We discuss the key mechanisms associated with TLR4 signaling in ICH and explore the potential for therapeutic intervention by targeting TLR4 signaling.

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          Most cited references 99

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          TLR signaling.

           T Kawai,  S Akira (2006)
          The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family plays an instructive role in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, as well as the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses. TLRs recognize specific molecular patterns found in a broad range of microbial pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, triggering inflammatory and antiviral responses and dendritic cell maturation, which result in the eradication of invading pathogens. Individual TLRs interact with different combinations of adapter proteins and activate various transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activating protein-1 and interferon regulatory factors, driving a specific immune response. This review outlines the recent advances in our understanding of TLR-signaling pathways and their roles in immune responses. Further, we also discuss a new concept of TLR-independent mechanisms for recognition of microbial pathogens.
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            Inferences, questions and possibilities in Toll-like receptor signalling.

             Bruce Beutler (2004)
            The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the key proteins that allow mammals--whether immunologically naive or experienced--to detect microbes. They lie at the core of our inherited resistance to disease, initiating most of the phenomena that occur in the course of infection. Quasi-infectious stimuli that have been used for decades to study inflammatory mechanisms can activate the TLR family of proteins. And it now seems that many inflammatory processes, both sterile and infectious, may depend on TLR signalling. We are in a good position to apply our understanding of TLR signalling to a range of challenges in immunology and medicine.
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              TLRs and innate immunity.

               B Beutler (2009)
              One of the most fundamental questions in immunology pertains to the recognition of non-self, which for the most part means microbes. How do we initially realize that we have been inoculated with microbes, and how is the immune response ignited? Genetic studies have made important inroads into this question during the past decade, and we now know that in mammals, a relatively small number of receptors operate to detect signature molecules that herald infection. One or more of these signature molecules are displayed by almost all microbes. These receptors and the signals they initiate have been studied in depth by random germline mutagenesis and positional cloning (forward genetics). Herein is a concise description of what has been learned about the Toll-like receptors, which play an essential part in the perception of microbes and shape the complex host responses that occur during infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central
                1742-2094
                2013
                17 February 2013
                : 10
                : 27
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Xinqiao Zhengjie No.183, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400037, China
                Article
                1742-2094-10-27
                10.1186/1742-2094-10-27
                3598479
                23414417
                Copyright ©2013 Fang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Neurosciences

                hematoma resolution, toll-like receptor 4, intracerebral hemorrhage, inflammation

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