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      Breakthrough invasive aspergillosis and diagnostic accuracy of serum galactomannan enzyme immune assay during acute myeloid leukemia induction chemotherapy with posaconazole prophylaxis

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          Posaconazole prophylaxis has demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis during prolonged neutropenia following acute myeloid leukemia induction chemotherapy. Antifungal treatment decreases serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay diagnostic accuracy that could delay the diagnosis and treatment.

          We retrospectively studied patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent intensive chemotherapy and antifungal prophylaxis by posaconazole oral suspension. Clinical, radiological, microbiological features and treatment response of patients with invasive aspergillosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis were analyzed. Diagnostic accuracy of serum galactomannan assay according to posaconazole plasma concentrations has been performed.

          A total of 288 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, treated by induction chemotherapy, who received posaconazole prophylaxis for more than five days were included in the present study. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis was 8% with 12 (4.2%), 8 (2.8%) and 3 (1%), possible, probable and proven invasive aspergillosis, respectively. Posaconazole plasma concentration was available for 258 patients. Median duration of posaconazole treatment was 17 days, and median posaconazole plasma concentration was 0.5 mg/L. None of patients with invasive aspergillosis and posaconazole concentration ≥ 0.5 mg/L had a serum galactomannan positive test. Sensitivity of serum galactomannan assay to detect probable and proven invasive aspergillosis was 81.8%. Decreasing the cut-off value for serum galactomannan optical density index from 0.5 to 0.3 increased sensitivity to 90.9%.

          In a homogenous cohort of acute myeloid leukemia patients during induction chemotherapy, increasing the posaconazole concentration decreases the sensitivity of serum galactomannan assay.

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          Most cited references 29

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          The epidemiology of fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies: the SEIFEM-2004 study.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted between 1999 and 2003 to 18 hematology wards in Italy. Each participating center provided information on all patients with newly diagnosed hematologic malignancies admitted during the survery period and on all episodes of IFI experienced by these patients. The cohort was formed of 11,802 patients with hematologic malignacies: acute leukemia (myeloid 3012, lymphoid 1173), chronic leukemia (myeloid 596, lymphoid 1104), lymphoma (Hodgkin's 844, non-Hodgkin's 3457), or multiple myeloma (1616). There were 538 proven or probable IFI (4.6%); 373 (69%) occurred in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Over half (346/538) were caused by molds (2.9%), in most cases Aspergillus spp. (310/346). The 192 yeast infections (1.6%) included 175 cases of candidemia. Overall and IFI-attributable mortality rates were 2% (209/11802) and 39% (209/538), respectively. The highest IFI-attributable mortality rates were associated with zygomycosis (64%) followed by fusariosis (53%), aspergillosis (42%), and candidemia (33%). Patients with hematologic malignancies are currently at higher risk of IFI caused by molds than by yeasts, and the incidence of IFI is highest among patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillus spp are still the most common pathogens, followed by Candida spp. Other agents are rare. The attributable mortality rate for aspergillosis has dropped from 60-70% to approximately 40%. Candidemia-related mortality remains within the 30-40% range reported in literature although the incidence has decreased.
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            Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: a meta-analysis.

            A double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent galactomannan assay has been approved for surveillance for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We undertook a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of a galactomannan assay for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. Studies of the galactomannan assay that used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer or similar criteria as a reference standard and provided data to calculate sensitivity and specificity were included. Pooled sensitivity and specificity and summary measures of accuracy, Q* (the upper left-most point on the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve), mean D (a log odds ratio), and Youden index were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Twenty-seven studies from 1966 to 28 February 2005 were included. Overall, the galactomannan assay had a sensitivity of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.74) and specificity of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88-0.90) for proven cases of invasive aspergillosis. The Youden index, mean D, and Q* were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.41-0.65), 2.74 (95% CI, 21.12-3.36), and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.86), respectively, indicating moderate accuracy. Subgroup analyses showed that the performance of the test differed by patient population and type of reference standard used. Significant heterogeneity was present. The galactomannan assay has moderate accuracy for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. The test is more useful in patients who have hematological malignancy or who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation than in solid-organ transplant recipients. Further studies with attention to the impact of antifungal therapy, rigorous assessment of false-positive test results, and assessment of the utility of the test under nonsurveillance conditions are needed.
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              Epidemiological trends in invasive aspergillosis in France: the SAIF network (2005-2007).

              A prospective (2005-2007) hospital-based multicentre surveillance of EORTC/MSG-proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA) cases whatever the underlying diseases was implemented in 12 French academic hospitals. Admissions per hospital and transplantation procedures were obtained. Cox regression models were used to determine risk factors associated with the 12-week overall mortality. With 424 case-patients included, the median incidence/hospital was 0.271/10(3) admissions (range 0.072-0.910) without significant alteration of incidence and seasonality over time. Among the 393 adults (62% men, 56 years (16-84 years)), 15% had proven IA, 78% haematological conditions, and 92.9% had lung involvement. Acute leukaemia (34.6%) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (21.4%) were major host factors, together with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (21.6%), which emerged as a new high-risk group. The other risk host factors consisted of solid organ transplantation (8.7%), solid tumours (4.3%), systemic inflammatory diseases (4.6%) and chronic respiratory diseases (2.3%). Serum galactomannan tests were more often positive (≥69%) for acute leukaemia and allogeneic stem cell transplantation than for the others (<42%; p <10(-3)). When positive (n = 245), cultures mainly yielded Aspergillus fumigatus (79.7%). First-line antifungal therapy consisted of voriconazole, caspofungin, lipid formulations of amphotericin, or any combination therapy (52%, 14%, 8% and 19.9%, respectively). Twelve-week overall mortality was 44.8% (95% CI, 39.8-50.0); it was 41% when first-line therapy included voriconazole and 60% otherwise (p <0.001). Independent factors for 12-week mortality were older age, positivity for both culture and galactomannan and central nervous system or pleural involvement, while any strategy containing voriconazole was protective. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                1 June 2018
                1 June 2018
                : 9
                : 42
                : 26724-26736
                1 Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                2 Laboratory of Mycology, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                3 Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                4 Pharmacy, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                5 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                6 Medical Information Department, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                7 Department of Infection Control, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                8 Laboratory of Hematology, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                9 Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging Department, University Hospital, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Pierre-Yves Dumas, pierre-yves.dumas@ 123456u-bordeaux.fr
                Copyright: © 2018 Calmettes et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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