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      Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Chronic Renal Insufficiency

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          Abstract

          There is growing evidence for a role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the repair of damaged endothelium. It remains unclear which cell populations are most useful for clinical trials. Administration of drugs increasing EPC numbers and/or improving functional properties seems attractive. Further basic research is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mobilization, differentiation and homing of EPC in general and in particular under uremic conditions. Nephrologists should search for strategies to ameliorate EPC dysfunction of uremia. In this way it might be possible to test whether improved EPC biology is associated with decreased cardiovascular mortality in uremic humans. In any such studies the difficulties are going to be related to the complex procedures for EPC isolation, the testing of their identity and differentiation and their propagation before use.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Number and migratory activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells inversely correlate with risk factors for coronary artery disease.

          Recent studies provide increasing evidence that postnatal neovascularization involves bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The regulation of EPCs in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear at present. Therefore, we determined the number and functional activity of EPCs in 45 patients with CAD and 15 healthy volunteers. The numbers of isolated EPCs and circulating CD34/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)-positive precursor cells were significantly reduced in patients with CAD by approximately 40% and 48%, respectively. To determine the influence of atherosclerotic risk factors, a risk factor score including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, positive family history of CAD, and LDL cholesterol levels was used. The number of risk factors was significantly correlated with a reduction of EPC levels (R=-0.394, P=0.002) and CD34-/KDR-positive cells (R=-0.537, P<0.001). Analysis of the individual risk factors demonstrated that smokers had significantly reduced levels of EPCs (P<0.001) and CD34-/KDR-positive cells (P=0.003). Moreover, a positive family history of CAD was associated with reduced CD34-/KDR-positive cells (P=0.011). Most importantly, EPCs isolated from patients with CAD also revealed an impaired migratory response, which was inversely correlated with the number of risk factors (R=-0.484, P=0.002). By multivariate analysis, hypertension was identified as a major independent predictor for impaired EPC migration (P=0.043). The present study demonstrates that patients with CAD revealed reduced levels and functional impairment of EPCs, which correlated with risk factors for CAD. Given the important role of EPCs for neovascularization of ischemic tissue, the decrease of EPC numbers and activity may contribute to impaired vascularization in patients with CAD. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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            Endothelial progenitor cells: characterization and role in vascular biology.

            Infusion of different hematopoietic stem cell populations and ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells augments neovascularization of tissue after ischemia and contributes to reendothelialization after endothelial injury, thereby, providing a novel therapeutic option. However, controversy exists with respect to the identification and the origin of endothelial progenitor cells. Overall, there is consensus that endothelial progenitor cells can derive from the bone marrow and that CD133/VEGFR2 cells represent a population with endothelial progenitor capacity. However, increasing evidence suggests that there are additional bone marrow-derived cell populations (eg, myeloid cells, "side population" cells, and mesenchymal cells) and non-bone marrow-derived cells, which also can give rise to endothelial cells. The characterization of the different progenitor cell populations and their functional properties are discussed. Mobilization and endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neovascularization is critically regulated. Stimulatory (eg, statins and exercise) or inhibitory factors (risk factors for coronary artery disease) modulate progenitor cell levels and, thereby, affect the vascular repair capacity. Moreover, recruitment and incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells requires a coordinated sequence of multistep adhesive and signaling events including adhesion and migration (eg, by integrins), chemoattraction (eg, by SDF-1/CXCR4), and finally the differentiation to endothelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neovascularization and reendothelialization.
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              Endothelial progenitor cells: mobilization, differentiation, and homing.

              Postnatal bone marrow contains a subtype of progenitor cells that have the capacity to migrate to the peripheral circulation and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Therefore, these cells have been termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The isolation of EPCs by adherence culture or magnetic microbeads has been described. In general, EPCs are characterized by the expression of 3 markers, CD133, CD34, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. During differentiation, EPCs obviously lose CD133 and start to express CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin, and von Willebrand factor. EPCs seem to participate in endothelial repair and neovascularization of ischemic organs. Clinical studies using EPCs for neovascularization have just been started; however, the mechanisms stimulating or inhibiting the differentiation of EPC in vivo and the signals causing their migration and homing to sites of injured endothelium or extravascular tissue are largely unknown at present. Thus, future studies will help to explore areas of potential basic research and clinical application of EPCs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2006
                June 2006
                06 June 2006
                : 29
                : 1
                : 24-31
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
                Article
                92484 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:24–31
                10.1159/000092484
                16582574
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 61, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92484
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