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      Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and the Traditional Brazilian Diet on Sarcopenia in Severe Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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          Abstract

          Background: Nutritional interventions may have positive effects on sarcopenia and body composition. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption and a healthy traditional Brazilian diet (DieTBra) on improving sarcopenia indicators and reducing total body fat in severe obesity. Methods: A randomized controlled trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02463435) conducted with 111 severely obese participants randomized into three treatment groups—(1) EVOO (52 mL/day), (2) DieTBra, (3) DieTBra + EVOO (52 mL/day)—for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia by walking speed and handgrip strength. Results: Significant reductions in total body fat ( p = 0.041) and body weight ( p = 0.003) were observed in the DieTBra group. In the DietBra + olive oil group there was also a significant reduction in body weight (0.001) compared to the olive oil-only group. ANCOVA analyses showed reductions in total body fat in the DieTBra ( p = 0.016) and DieTBra + olive oil ( p = 0.004) groups. Individuals in the DieTBra group had significant improvements in their walking speed ( p = 0.042) and handgrip strength ( p = 0.044). Conclusions: DieTBra contributes to improvements in handgrip strength, walking speed, and total body fat in severely obese adults. The major study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02463435).

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          Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype

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            Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

            Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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              Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants

              The Lancet, 387(10026), 1377-1396
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                21 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 12
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-220, Goias, Brazil; jackdanesio@ 123456yahoo.com.br (J.D.d.S.); anapsr@ 123456gmail.com (A.P.d.S.R.)
                [2 ]Affiliate Academic at the Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
                [3 ]Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Darcy Ribeiro University Campus, Brasília CEP 70910-900, Distrito Federal, Brazil; ricardomoreno@ 123456unb.br
                [4 ]School of Social Sciences and Health, Nutrition Course, Pontifical Catholic University of Goias, Goiânia 74605-020, Brazil; camilacardoso_nut@ 123456hotmail.com
                [5 ]Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK; c.oliveira@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: erikasil@ 123456terra.com.br
                Article
                nutrients-12-01498
                10.3390/nu12051498
                7284637
                32455620
                546a0912-8723-428b-8ab7-97e80d167ffa
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                diet, sarcopenia, grip strength, walking speed, body composition, obesity, clinical trial

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