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      Effect of Isolation Measures on the Incidence and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Hemodialysis


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          Background: Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis (HD) units is well established. In units with a high prevalence of HCV infection, the implementation of universal precautionary measures may not suffice in order to decrease the incidence and prevalence of HCV. In this setting strict isolation practices can be useful in order to achieve this goal. Methods: The incidence and prevalence of HCV infection amongst all HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the province of Albacete, Spain, have been studied from 1992 to 2003.Through the 1993–1995 period chronic HD patients were treated either in a room exclusively for HCV– patients or in a room shared by HCV+ and HCV– patients. Complete separation of HCV+ and HCV– patients was implemented in 1995. Acute patients have been separated since 1992. The implementation of universal precautions was applied throughout the period. Results: There has not been a single seroconversion in the rooms where only HCV– patients were dialyzed during the 11 years of follow-up. There were two seroconversions in the rooms shared for 3 years by both HCV+ and HCV– patients. In 1995 the prevalence of HCV+ cases in HD and PD was 21.6 and 23.2%, respectively. Since then it has decreased steadily and in parallel for both therapies, and the current prevalence is 6.8% in HD and 5.7% in PD. Conclusions: In HD units with a high prevalence of HCV+ patients, strict isolation in combination with implementation of universal prevention measures can eliminate nosocomial transmission and obtain a long-term reduction in prevalence.

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          Effects of hepatitis C infection and renal transplantation on survival in end-stage renal disease. The New England Organ Bank Hepatitis C Study Group.

          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the effect of HCV infection on survival among ESRD patients, and the impact of renal transplantation on the course of HCV infection has not been adequately defined. Sera from patients on the renal transplant waiting list at the New England Organ Bank between November 1986 and June 1990 were tested for anti-HCV using a third generation ELISA. All anti-HCV positive patients and a 1:1 ratio of randomly selected anti-HCV negative patients comprised the study sample. Duration of follow-up was calculated from the date of the first available serum specimen until death, loss to follow-up or December 31, 1995, whichever occurred earlier. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for mortality was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model which included anti-HCV as a time-independent (baseline) variable, transplantation as a time-dependent (follow-up) variable, and independently significant baseline covariates. Anti-HCV was detected in 287 (19%) of 1544 patients in whom sera were available, and 286 anti-HCV negative patients served as controls. Complete information was available in 496 (87%) of these 573 patients. Median follow-up was 73 months (range 1 to 110 months), during which time 302 (61%) patients underwent renal transplantation and 154 (31%) patients died. For anti-HCV positive patients compared to anti-HCV negative patients, the relative risk of death (and 95% confidence intervals) from all causes was 1.41 (1.01 to 1.97) and due to liver disease or infection was 2.39 (1.28 to 4.48). For patients who underwent transplantation compared to those who remained on dialysis, the relative risk of death from all causes between 0 to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, seven months to four years, and after four years was 4.75 (2.76 to 8.17), 1.76 (0.75 to 4.13), 0.31 (0.18 to 0.54) and 0.84 (0.51 to 1.37), respectively. There was no interaction between the effect of anti-HCV status as baseline and subsequent transplantation (P = 0.93), meaning that the association between treatment modality and survival was similar among anti-HCV positive and negative patients, at all intervals after transplantation. We conclude that HCV infection at the time of referral for transplantation is associated with an increased risk of death, irrespective of whether patients remain on dialysis or undergo transplantation. Transplantation has a beneficial rather than adverse effect on long-term survival in anti-HCV positive patients. Hence, anti-HCV positive status alone is not a contraindication for renal transplantation.
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            Hepatitis C and renal disease: an update.

            Hepatitis C is both a cause and a complication of chronic renal disease. Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to the immune complex syndromes of cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). The pathogenetic mechanisms for these conditions have not been defined, although they are clearly caused by the chronic viral infection. Management of HCV-related cryoglobulinemia and MPGN is difficult; antiviral therapy is effective in clearing HCV infection in a proportion of patients, but these conditions can be severe and resistant to antiviral therapy. Hepatitis C also is a complicating factor among patients with end-stage renal disease and renal transplants. The source of HCV infection in these patients can be nosocomial. Screening and careful attention to infection control precautions are mandatory for dialysis units to prevent the spread of hepatitis C. Prevention of spread is particularly important in these patients because HCV infection is associated with significant worsening of survival on dialysis therapy, as well as after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, therapy for hepatitis C is problematic, only partially effective, and associated with significant side effects in this population. There are significant needs in both basic and clinical research in the pathogenesis, natural history, prevention, and therapy for hepatitis C in patients with renal disease.
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              Hepatitis C virus infection in dialysis and renal transplantation.


                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : c1-c6
                Servicio de Nefrología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, España
                93252 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;104:c1–c6
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 15 July 2004
                : 17 October 2005
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 23, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93252
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/93252
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Peritoneal dialysis,Prevalence in hemodialysis, HCV,Incidence in dialysis, HCV,Transmission, nosocomial HCV,Isolation measures,Hemodialysis,Hepatitis C,Prevention, HCV,Viral infections, prevention of


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