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      MiR-375 Promotes Redifferentiation of Adult Human β Cells Expanded In Vitro

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          Abstract

          In-vitro expansion of β cells from adult human pancreatic islets could provide abundant cells for cell replacement therapy of diabetes. However, proliferation of β-cell-derived (BCD) cells is associated with dedifferentiation. Here we analyzed changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) during BCD cell dedifferentiation and identified miR-375 as one of the miRNAs greatly downregulated. We hypothesized that restoration of miR-375 expression in expanded BCD cells may contribute to their redifferentiation. Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of miR-375 alone leads to activation of β-cell gene expression, reduced cell proliferation, and a switch from N-cadherin to E-cadherin expression, which characterizes mesenchymal-epithelial transition. These effects, which are reproducible in cells derived from multiple human donors, are likely mediated by repression of PDPK1 transcripts and indirect downregulation of GSK3 activity. These findings support an important role of miR-375 in regulation of human β-cell phenotype, and suggest that miR-375 upregulation may facilitate the generation of functional insulin-producing cells following ex-vivo expansion of human islet cells.

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          Most cited references30

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          Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B.

          Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes, including the control of glycogen and protein synthesis by insulin, modulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB, the specification of cell fate in Drosophila and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos. GSK3 is inhibited by serine phosphorylation in response to insulin or growth factors and in vitro by either MAP kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-1 (also known as p90rsk) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k). Here we show, however, that agents which prevent the activation of both MAPKAP kinase-1 and p70S6k by insulin in vivo do not block the phosphorylation and inhibition of GSK3. Another insulin-stimulated protein kinase inactivates GSK3 under these conditions, and we demonstrate that it is the product of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/RAC). Like the inhibition of GSK3 (refs 10, 14), the activation of PKB is prevented by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase.
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            Microarray profiling of microRNAs reveals frequent coexpression with neighboring miRNAs and host genes.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNAs known to post-transcriptionally repress gene expression in animals and plants. A microarray profiling survey revealed the expression patterns of 175 human miRNAs across 24 different human organs. Our results show that proximal pairs of miRNAs are generally coexpressed. In addition, an abrupt transition in the correlation between pairs of expressed miRNAs occurs at a distance of 50 kb, implying that miRNAs separated by <50 kb typically derive from a common transcript. Some microRNAs are within the introns of host genes. Intronic miRNAs are usually coordinately expressed with their host gene mRNA, implying that they also generally derive from a common transcript, and that in situ analyses of host gene expression can be used to probe the spatial and temporal localization of intronic miRNAs.
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              Epigenetic memory and preferential lineage-specific differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human pancreatic islet beta cells.

              Human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs) appear to be highly similar to human embryonic stem cells (HESCs). Using two genetic lineage-tracing systems, we demonstrate the generation of iPSC lines from human pancreatic islet beta cells. These reprogrammed cells acquired markers of pluripotent cells and differentiated into the three embryonic germ layers. However, the beta cell-derived iPSCs (BiPSCs) maintained open chromatin structure at key beta-cell genes, together with a unique DNA methylation signature that distinguishes them from other PSCs. BiPSCs also demonstrated an increased ability to differentiate into insulin-producing cells both in vitro and in vivo, compared with ESCs and isogenic non-beta iPSCs. Our results suggest that the epigenetic memory may predispose BiPSCs to differentiate more readily into insulin producing cells. These findings demonstrate that HiPSC phenotype may be influenced by their cells of origin, and suggest that their skewed differentiation potential may be advantageous for cell replacement therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                13 April 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 4
                : e0122108
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
                University of Torino, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: GN SE. Performed the experiments: GN SKR TG AL. Analyzed the data: GN SE TG HK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EH. Wrote the paper: GN SE.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-48680
                10.1371/journal.pone.0122108
                4395232
                25875172
                5477e530-b25c-4656-9e27-8ae95afa3d40
                Copyright @ 2015

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                History
                : 29 October 2014
                : 17 February 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Pages: 18
                Funding
                This work was funded by a grant from the Israel Science Foundation to SE. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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