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      Cosegregation of a Novel Homozygous CYP11B1 Mutation with the Phenotype of Non-Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in a Consanguineous Family

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          We report a novel missense mutation of CYP11B1 causing non-classical 11β-hydroxylase deficiency in 3 members of a consanguineous Turkish family. Two siblings presented with clinical evidence of precocious pseudopubarche. Biochemistry suggested 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and genetic analysis revealed that they were homozygous for the missense mutation L489S within exon 9 of the CYP11B1 gene. The unaffected parents were heterozygotes for the same mutation. In addition, a paternal aunt of the affected siblings presenting with primary infertility and mild hirsutism was found to have the same homozygous mutation. This is the first report of a homozygous mutation in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia that cosegregates with clinical phenotype. The significance of the missense mutation L489S in CYP11B1 is further supported by the conservation of leucine at position 489 in CYP11 genes in eleven other species. Molecular modelling of the enzyme suggests that the mutation L489S in CYP11B1 may alter the enzyme’s substrate-binding affinity. These findings suggest that this homozygous mutation affects 11β-hydroxylase function, resulting in the clinical features of non-classical adrenal hyperplasia in this family.

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          Structure validation by Calpha geometry: phi,psi and Cbeta deviation.

          Geometrical validation around the Calpha is described, with a new Cbeta measure and updated Ramachandran plot. Deviation of the observed Cbeta atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-validation information contained in bond angle distortions. Cbeta deviation is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement restraints. A new phi,psi plot using density-dependent smoothing for 81,234 non-Gly, non-Pro, and non-prePro residues with B < 30 from 500 high-resolution proteins shows sharp boundaries at critical edges and clear delineation between large empty areas and regions that are allowed but disfavored. One such region is the gamma-turn conformation near +75 degrees,-60 degrees, counted as forbidden by common structure-validation programs; however, it occurs in well-ordered parts of good structures, it is overrepresented near functional sites, and strain is partly compensated by the gamma-turn H-bond. Favored and allowed phi,psi regions are also defined for Pro, pre-Pro, and Gly (important because Gly phi,psi angles are more permissive but less accurately determined). Details of these accurate empirical distributions are poorly predicted by previous theoretical calculations, including a region left of alpha-helix, which rates as favorable in energy yet rarely occurs. A proposed factor explaining this discrepancy is that crowding of the two-peptide NHs permits donating only a single H-bond. New calculations by Hu et al. [Proteins 2002 (this issue)] for Ala and Gly dipeptides, using mixed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics, fit our nonrepetitive data in excellent detail. To run our geometrical evaluations on a user-uploaded file, see MOLPROBITY (http://kinemage.biochem.duke.edu) or RAMPAGE (http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/rampage). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            [26] Raster3D: Photorealistic molecular graphics

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              PDBsum more: new summaries and analyses of the known 3D structures of proteins and nucleic acids

              PDBsum is a database of mainly pictorial summaries of the 3D structures of proteins and nucleic acids in the Protein Data Bank. Its pages aim to provide an at-a-glance view of the contents of every 3D structure, plus detailed structural analyses of each protein chain, DNA–RNA chain and any bound ligands and metals. In the past year, the database has been significantly improved, in terms of both appearance and new content. Moreover, it has moved to its new address at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/pdbsum.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                March 2007
                20 November 2006
                : 67
                : 4
                : 189-193
                Departments of aEndocrinology and bClinical Biochemistry, Royal London Hospital, cDepartment of Endocrinology, Barts and the London, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; dService de Biochimie Endocrinienne et Moléculaire, Debrousse Hospital, Lyon, France
                97244 Horm Res 2007;67:189–193
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 16, Pages: 5
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