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      Assessment of species gaps in DNA barcode libraries of non-indigenous species (NIS) occurring in European coastal regions

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      Metabarcoding and Metagenomics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          DNA metabarcoding has the capacity to bolster current biodiversity assessment techniques, including the early detection and monitoring of non-indigenous species (NIS). However, the success of this approach is greatly dependent on the availability, taxonomic coverage and reliability of reference sequences in genetic databases, whose deficiencies can potentially compromise species identifications at the taxonomic assignment step. In this study we assessed lacunae in availability of DNA sequence data from four barcodes (COI, 18S, rbcL and matK) for NIS occurring in European marine and coastal environments. NIS checklists were based on EASIN and AquaNIS databases. The highest coverage was found for COI for Animalia and rbcL for Plantae (up to 63%, for both) and 18S for Chromista (up to 51%), that greatly increased when only high impact species were taken into account (up to 82 to 89%). Results show that different markers have unbalanced representations in genetic databases, implying that the parallel use of more than one marker can act complimentarily and may greatly increase NIS identification rates through DNA-based tools. Furthermore, based on the COI marker, data for approximately 30% of the species had maximum intra-specific distances higher than 3%, suggesting that many NIS may have undescribed or cryptic diversity. Although completing the gaps in reference libraries is essential to make the most of the potential of the DNA-based tools, a careful compilation, verification and annotation of available sequences is fundamental to assemble large curated and reliable reference libraries that provide support for rigorous species identifications.

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          We can eliminate invasions or live with them. Successful management projects

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            A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

            We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists’ expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL’s database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory “backbone” for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity.
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              Global spread of microorganisms by ships.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Metabarcoding and Metagenomics
                MBMG
                Pensoft Publishers
                2534-9708
                August 12 2020
                August 12 2020
                : 4
                Article
                10.3897/mbmg.4.55162
                © 2020

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