Rosuvastatin (Crestor<sup>®</sup>; licensed to AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, UK from Shionogi, Osaka, Japan) is a new statin with pharmacologic characteristics that translate into selectivity of effect in hepatic cells and enhanced potency in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibition. It is approved for use at doses of 10–40 mg once daily to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and improve other lipid measures in dyslipidemic patients. In a dose-ranging study in mild/moderate hypercholesterolemia, rosuvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by 52–63% at 10–40 mg. Rosuvastatin 10 mg reduces LDL cholesterol significantly more than atorvastatin 10 mg, simvastatin 10–40 mg and pravastatin 10–40 mg, and enables significantly more patients to achieve National Cholesterol Education Program and Joint European Societies LDL cholesterol goals compared with each of these statins. Rosuvastatin also produces marked elevations in HDL cholesterol and maintains this effect across the dose range. Rosuvastatin favorably modifies triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and other lipid measures in patients with hypertriglyceridemia or mixed dyslipidemia, including diabetic patients, and may constitute a monotherapy option for many such patients. Rosuvastatin is well tolerated when used alone or in combination, exhibiting a safety profile similar to that of other available statins. Rosuvastatin offers considerable advantages for use in routine clinical practice.