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      Tablet or capsule form of generic mycophenolate mofetil (My-Rept ®) after liver transplantation: a prospective randomized trial

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          Tablet and capsule forms have advantages and disadvantages in the market. Generally, the tablet form (500 mg) of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is more convenient for drug ingestion and more cost-effective than the capsule form (250 mg). We examined the efficacy and safety of MMF in its different forms combined with tacrolimus in liver transplant recipients.


          A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety between the tablet form of MMF (tablet group) and the capsule form of MMF (capsule group) in liver transplant patients. One hundred sixteen patients were enrolled in the present study from 2014 to 2017. Fifty-six patients in the full-analysis set (FAS) population were in the capsule group and 60 were in the tablet group. The primary endpoint was incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) by 24 weeks after liver transplantation (LT). Secondary endpoints were patient survival, serum creatinine level, and adverse events (AEs).


          In the per-protocol population, 45 patients were in the tablet group and 49 were in the capsule group. There were no statistically significant differences in MMF dose, mycophenolic acid trough level, and tacrolimus trough level between the two groups. The incidence of BPAR at 24 weeks after randomization was 6.7% in the tablet group and 6.1% in the capsule group ( P=0.627). All patients with BPAR responded well to steroid pulse therapy and increased tacrolimus. Serum creatine level and eGFR were not different between the two groups. The incidence of serious AEs was 7.2% in the tablet group and 7.6% in the capsule group, and none were related to formulation. There was no significant difference in incidence of discontinuations or serious AEs between the two groups.


          The present study suggests that the new tablet formulation can be a useful treatment option to maintain a consistent systemic exposure level of MMF, which may help reduce graft failure in liver transplant patients.

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          Most cited references 8

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          2016 Comprehensive Update of the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology: Introduction of Antibody-Mediated Rejection

          The Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology reviewed and discussed literature evidence regarding antibody-mediated liver allograft rejection at the 11th (Paris, France, June 5-10, 2011), 12th (Comandatuba, Brazil, August 19-23, 2013), and 13th (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, October 5-10, 2015) meetings of the Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology. Discussion continued online. The primary goal was to introduce guidelines and consensus criteria for the diagnosis of liver allograft antibody-mediated rejection and provide a comprehensive update of all Banff Schema recommendations. Included are new recommendations for complement component 4d tissue staining and interpretation, staging liver allograft fibrosis, and findings related to immunosuppression minimization. In an effort to create a single reference document, previous unchanged criteria are also included.
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            Calcineurin inhibitor sparing with mycophenolate mofetil in liver transplantion: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

            Liver transplant recipients are at high risk of developing acute and chronic renal failure. Moreover, introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for primary allocation of liver grafts favors patients with pretransplant kidney dysfunction, which in turn have a higher risk of posttransplant renal failure. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) further increase the risk of renal failure and therefore sparing CNI with the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may improve renal function. MMF may either be used de novo in the immediate posttransplant period in combination with low-dose CNI (scenario 1) or patients that receive immunosuppression based on CNI may be converted to MMF in combination with minimization or elimination of CNI (scenario 2). Although many retrospective cohort studies and nonrandomized trials have implicated efficacy of this approach the evidence from randomized controlled studies has not been summarized. In the current review we report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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              The Need for Standardization of Tacrolimus Assays

              Owing to the lack of an internationally recognized tacrolimus reference material and reference method, current LC-MS and immunoassay test methods used to monitor tacrolimus concentrations in whole blood are not standardized. The aim of this study was to assess the need for tacrolimus assay standardization.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                02 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2187-2193
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jae-Won JohDepartment of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine , Irwon-Ro 81, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul06351, Republic of KoreaTel +8 223 410 3466Fax +8 223 410 0040Email jw.joh@ 123456samsung.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Kim et al.

                This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 9, Pages: 7
                Original Research


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