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Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families

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Child Development

Wiley

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      Most cited references 14

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      The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

       L Radloff (1977)
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        The Perceived Competence Scale for Children

         Susan Harter (1982)
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          The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.

          This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Child Development
            Child Development
            Wiley
            0009-3920
            1467-8624
            October 1991
            October 1991
            : 62
            : 5
            : 1049-1065
            10.1111/j.1467-8624.1991.tb01588.x
            © 1991

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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