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      Subacute Thyroiditis from COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and Review of Literature

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The novel severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has led to the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease pandemic. There are increasing reports of extrapulmonary clinical features of COVID-19, either as initial presentations or sequelae of disease. We report a patient diagnosed with subacute thyroiditis precipitated by COVID-19 infection, as well as review the literature of similar cases.

          Case Presentation

          A 41-year-old female with no significant personal or family history of endocrinologic disorders presented with clinical features of thyroiditis that began after COVID-19 infection. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings were indicative of subacute thyroiditis. Workup for potential triggers other than SARS-CoV-2 was negative.

          Discussion/Conclusion

          We compared the clinical and diagnostic findings of our patient with other well-documented cases of subacute thyroiditis presumed to be triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. We also reviewed the literature related to the potential mechanisms leading to thyroiditis. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction after COVID-19 infection. Early recognition and timely anti-inflammatory therapy help in successful management.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury

            During several months of 2003, a newly identified illness termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread rapidly through the world 1,2,3 . A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified as the SARS pathogen 4,5,6,7 , which triggered severe pneumonia and acute, often lethal, lung failure 8 . Moreover, among infected individuals influenza such as the Spanish flu 9,10 and the emergence of new respiratory disease viruses 11,12 have caused high lethality resulting from acute lung failure 13 . In cell lines, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a potential SARS-CoV receptor 14 . The high lethality of SARS-CoV infections, its enormous economic and social impact, fears of renewed outbreaks as well as the potential misuse of such viruses as biologic weapons make it paramount to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV. Here we provide the first genetic proof that ACE2 is a crucial SARS-CoV receptor in vivo. SARS-CoV infections and the Spike protein of the SARS-CoV reduce ACE2 expression. Notably, injection of SARS-CoV Spike into mice worsens acute lung failure in vivo that can be attenuated by blocking the renin-angiotensin pathway. These results provide a molecular explanation why SARS-CoV infections cause severe and often lethal lung failure and suggest a rational therapy for SARS and possibly other respiratory disease viruses. Supplementary information The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nm1267) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Multiple organ infection and the pathogenesis of SARS

              After >8,000 infections and >700 deaths worldwide, the pathogenesis of the new infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), remains poorly understood. We investigated 18 autopsies of patients who had suspected SARS; 8 cases were confirmed as SARS. We evaluated white blood cells from 22 confirmed SARS patients at various stages of the disease. T lymphocyte counts in 65 confirmed and 35 misdiagnosed SARS cases also were analyzed retrospectively. SARS viral particles and genomic sequence were detected in a large number of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid tissues, as well as in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, the mucosa of the intestine, the epithelium of the renal distal tubules, the neurons of the brain, and macrophages in different organs. SARS virus seemed to be capable of infecting multiple cell types in several organs; immune cells and pulmonary epithelium were identified as the main sites of injury. A comprehensive theory of pathogenesis is proposed for SARS with immune and lung damage as key features.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur Thyroid J
                Eur Thyroid J
                ETJ
                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                2235-0640
                2235-0802
                5 November 2020
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York, USA
                bDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, Great Neck, New York, USA
                Author notes
                *Akshay Khatri, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health, 400 Community Drive, ID Suite, Manhasset, NY 11030 (USA), akshay1210@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                etj-0001
                10.1159/000511872
                7705942
                Copyright © 2020 by European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Clinical Thyroidology / Case Report

                thyroid tests, subacute thyroiditis, sars-cov-2, covid-19

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