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      TNF-α increases bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell migration to ischemic tissues.

      Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

      Animals, Cell Adhesion, drug effects, Cell Movement, Disease Models, Animal, Endothelial Cells, cytology, metabolism, Integrin alpha4beta1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Ischemia, therapy, L-Selectin, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, pharmacology, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

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          The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of TNF-α on rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to assess feasibility of MSC transplantation to repair ischemic injury. In this study, adhesion molecules and cell specific surface markers on MSCs were measured after exposure to different concentrations of TNF-α. MSCs stimulated with varying concentrations of TNF-α were cultured with aortic endothelial cells, and the adhesion rate was measured. MSCs were then stimulated with an optimum concentration of TNF-α as determined in vitro, and injected intravenously into rats with ischemic hind limb injury. The number of MSCs in muscle samples from the ischemic area was counted. The results showed that (1) TNF-α induced a concentration-dependent increase in VCAM-1 expression in MSCs, whereas the expression of L-selectin, ICAM-1 and VLA-4 did not change significantly. Expression of MSC-specific antigens was unchanged. (2) MSCs pretreated with 10 ng/ml TNF-α showed significantly increased adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro, and accumulated to a greater extent in the areas of ischemic damage in rat hind limbs. We were able to conclude that TNF-α has no effect on expression of MSC-specific markers, but can increase the expression of VCAM-1 on rat MSCs. Suitable concentrations of TNF-α can promote MSC adhesion to endothelial cells and migration to damaged tissue. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

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