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Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Partial Nitritation and Conventional Nitrification Systems for Nitrogen Removal

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      Abstract

      This work studied the microbial community in partial nitritation and complete nitrification processes, which were applied to treat the low Carbon Nitrogen ratio wastewater. The phospholipid fatty acid and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the sludge circulating ratio of 75% resulted in a good microbial growth and a higher abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria relative to the nitrite oxidizing bacteria. The Betaproteobacteria were observed to compose the most abundant sludge bacterial groups in the two processes, based on phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of both 16S rRNA and amoA gene indicated that the Nitrosomonas sp. were the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the partial nitritation process. The relative abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria, such as Nitrobacter sp. and Nitrospira sp., were significantly lower in the partial nitritation system over the complete nitrification system. The abundance of Planctomycetes was higher in the partial nitritation process, indicating the anammox reaction occurred in the partial nitritation system. These results suggested the nitrite accumulation rate of circulating ratios 75% was the highest, with an average of 92%,and a possibility to treat the low Carbon Nitrogen ratio wastewater using the partial nitritation/anammox process.

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      Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea.

      The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific 'ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.
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        Quantitative analysis of small-subunit rRNA genes in mixed microbial populations via 5'-nuclease assays.

        Few techniques are currently available for quantifying specific prokaryotic taxa in environmental samples. Quantification of specific genotypes has relied mainly on oligonucleotide hybridization to extracted rRNA or intact rRNA in whole cells. However, low abundance and cellular rRNA content limit the application of these techniques in aquatic environments. In this study, we applied a newly developed quantitative PCR assay (5'-nuclease assay, also known as TaqMan) to quantify specific small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (rDNAs) from uncultivated planktonic prokaryotes in Monterey Bay. Primer and probe combinations for quantification of SSU rDNAs at the domain and group levels were developed and tested for specificity and quantitative reliability. We examined the spatial and temporal variations of SSU rDNAs from Synechococcus plus Prochlorococcus and marine Archaea and compared the results of the quantitative PCR assays to those obtained by alternative methods. The 5'-nuclease assays reliably quantified rDNAs over at least 4 orders of magnitude and accurately measured the proportions of genes in artificial mixtures. The spatial and temporal distributions of planktonic microbial groups measured by the 5'-nuclease assays were similar to the distributions estimated by quantitative oligonucleotide probe hybridization, whole-cell hybridization assays, and flow cytometry.
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          Quantitative analyses of the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea of a Chinese upland red soil under long-term fertilization practices.

          The abundance and composition of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing approaches based on amoA genes. The soil, classified as agri-udic ferrosols with pH (H(2)O) ranging from 3.7 to 6.0, was sampled in summer and winter from long-term field experimental plots which had received 16 years continuous fertilization treatments, including fallow (CK0), control without fertilizers (CK) and those with combinations of fertilizer nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K): N, NP, NK, PK, NPK and NPK plus organic manure (OM). Population sizes of AOB and AOA changed greatly in response to the different fertilization treatments. The NPK + OM treatment had the highest copy numbers of AOB and AOA amoA genes among the treatments that received mineral fertilizers, whereas the lowest copy numbers were recorded in the N treatment. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea were more abundant than AOB in all the corresponding treatments, with AOA to AOB ratios ranging from 1.02 to 12.36. Significant positive correlations were observed among the population sizes of AOB and AOA, soil pH and potential nitrification rates, indicating that both AOB and AOA played an important role in ammonia oxidation in the soil. Phylogenetic analyses of the amoA gene fragments showed that all AOB sequences from different treatments were affiliated with Nitrosospira or Nitrosospira-like species and grouped into cluster 3, and little difference in AOB community composition was recorded among different treatments. All AOA sequences fell within cluster S (soil origin) and cluster M (marine and sediment origin). Cluster M dominated exclusively in the N, NP, NK and PK treatments, indicating a pronounced difference in the community composition of AOA in response to the long-term fertilization treatments. These findings could be fundamental to improve our understanding of the importance of both AOB and AOA in the cycling of nitrogen and other nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000000119573309, GRID grid.9227.e, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Beijing, 100085 China
            [2 ]College of Water Resources and Environment, Hebei Geo University, Shijiazhuang, 050031 China
            [3 ]Beijing Drainage Group Corporation Limited, Beijing, 100124 China
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7304, GRID grid.1010.0, School of Chemical Engineering, , The University of Adelaide, ; Adelaide, SA 5095 Australia
            Contributors
            zhiruizh@163.com
            bqshan@rcees.ac.cn
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            28 August 2018
            28 August 2018
            2018
            : 8
            30154517
            6113234
            30532
            10.1038/s41598-018-30532-4
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Funding
            Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100002855, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology);
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