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      Renal- and calcium-dependent vascular effects of Polybia paulista wasp venom

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          Abstract

          In the present study, the effects of Polybia paulista venom (PPV) on renal and vascular tissues were investigated. Isolated kidneys perfused with PPV (1 and 3 μg/mL) had increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, and glomerular filtration rate; and reduced sodium tubular transport. Histological evaluation demonstrated deposits of proteins in Bowman's space and tubular lumen, and focal areas of necrosis. The venom promoted a cytotoxic effect on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. A significant increase in lactic dehydrogenase levels was observed in response to venom exposure. In isolated mesenteric vascular beds, pressure and vascular resistance augmented in a dose-dependent manner. PPV increased the contractility of aortic rings maintained under basal tension. This contractile response was inhibited when preparations were maintained in Ca2+-free medium. Likewise, verapamil, a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, also inhibited the contractile response. In this study, phentolamine, a blocker of α-adrenergic receptor blocker, significantly reduced the contractile effect of PPV in the aortic ring. In conclusion, PPV produced nephrotoxicity, which suggests a direct effect on necrotic cellular death in renal tubule cells. The vascular contractile effect of PPV appears to involve calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels via adrenergic regulation.

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          Ion channels and vascular tone.

          Ion channels in the plasma membrane of vascular muscle cells that form the walls of resistance arteries and arterioles play a central role in the regulation of vascular tone. Current evidence indicates that vascular smooth muscle cells express at least 4 different types of K(+) channels, 1 to 2 types of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, >/=2 types of Cl(-) channels, store-operated Ca(+) (SOC) channels, and stretch-activated cation (SAC) channels in their plasma membranes, all of which may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Calcium influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+), SOC, and SAC channels provides a major source of activator Ca(2+) used by resistance arteries and arterioles. In addition, K(+) and Cl(-) channels and the Ca(2+) channels mentioned previously all are involved in the determination of the membrane potential of these cells. Membrane potential is a key variable that not only regulates Ca(+2) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, but also influences release of Ca(2+) from internal stores and Ca(2+)- sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. By controlling Ca(2+) delivery and membrane potential, ion channels are involved in all aspects of the generation and regulation of vascular tone.
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            Hymenoptera venom allergens.

            Hymenoptera venoms each contain a variety of protein allergens. The major components have all been characterized, and most of the amino acid sequences are known. This article concentrates on the use of contemporary techniques including cloning, mass spectrometry and genomics in the characterization of venom allergens, and newer separation techniques for protein isolation. Examples of the use of these techniques with venom proteins are presented.
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              THE EFFECT OF SYMPATHETIC NERVE STIMULATION OF VASOCONSTRICTOR RESPONSES IN PERFUSED MESENTERIC BLOOD VESSELS OF THE RAT.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                jvatitd
                Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
                J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis
                Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP (Botucatu )
                1678-9199
                2011
                : 17
                : 2
                : 199-208
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S1678-91992011000200011
                10.1590/S1678-91992011000200011
                54ddf805-ad8d-4c51-8187-0fca0cf832d7

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product Information: website
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en
                Categories
                TOXICOLOGY
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Toxicology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Polybia paulista,venom,kidney,aorta,MDCK
                Toxicology, Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Polybia paulista, venom, kidney, aorta, MDCK

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