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      Mitochondria in acute myocardial infarction and cardioprotection

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          Abstract

          Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure (HF) that often follows are among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new treatments are needed to protect the myocardium against the damaging effects of the acute ischaemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) that occurs in AMI, in order to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size, preserve cardiac function, and improve patient outcomes. In this regard, cardiac mitochondria play a dual role as arbiters of cell survival and death following AMI. Therefore, preventing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by acute myocardial IRI is an important therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection. In this article, we review the role of mitochondria as key determinants of acute myocardial IRI, and we highlight their roles as therapeutic targets for reducing MI size and preventing HF following AMI. In addition, we discuss the challenges in translating mitoprotective strategies into the clinical setting for improving outcomes in AMI patients.

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          Most cited references94

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

            An inflammatory response initiated by the NLRP3 inflammasome is triggered by a variety of situations of host 'danger', including infection and metabolic dysregulation. Previous studies suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is negatively regulated by autophagy and positively regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from an uncharacterized organelle. Here we show that mitophagy/autophagy blockade leads to the accumulation of damaged, ROS-generating mitochondria, and this in turn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Resting NLRP3 localizes to endoplasmic reticulum structures, whereas on inflammasome activation both NLRP3 and its adaptor ASC redistribute to the perinuclear space where they co-localize with endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria organelle clusters. Notably, both ROS generation and inflammasome activation are suppressed when mitochondrial activity is dysregulated by inhibition of the voltage-dependent anion channel. This indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome senses mitochondrial dysfunction and may explain the frequent association of mitochondrial damage with inflammatory diseases.
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              Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

              Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) 1-5 . Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion 1,3 . Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                EBioMedicine
                EBioMedicine
                EBioMedicine
                Elsevier
                2352-3964
                10 July 2020
                July 2020
                10 July 2020
                : 57
                : 102884
                Affiliations
                [a ]National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre, Singapore
                [b ]Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore
                [c ]Institute of Biochemistry, Medical School, Justus-Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
                [d ]Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Justus Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany
                [e ]Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore
                [f ]The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK
                [g ]Cardiovascular Research Center, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Asia University, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. derek.hausenloy@ 123456duke-nus.edu.sg
                Article
                S2352-3964(20)30259-0 102884
                10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102884
                7355051
                32653860
                54df38e4-6e04-4ee6-a20d-6e91a221ae87
                © 2020 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 May 2020
                : 19 June 2020
                : 24 June 2020
                Categories
                Review

                ischaemic heart disease,acute myocardial infarction,ischaemia-reperfusion injury,mitochondria,oxidative stress,calcium overload,cardioprotection

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