1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Adrenarche: Postnatal Adrenal Zonation and Hormonal and Metabolic Regulation

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Adrenarche is the direct consequence of the organogenesis of the zona reticularis (ZR). Proliferation of cortical cells could take place in the outermost layers of the adrenal cortex. Cells could then migrate to differentiate the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) during fetal life, and the ZR during postnatal life. After adrenarche, there are detectable increases in circulating DHEA and DHEA-S. Adrenarche could result from an increase in 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17 secondary to high levels of cytochrome b<sub>5</sub> expression, and from a decrease in 3βHSD2 expression along with an increase in the expression of SULT2A1 in the ZR. The GH-IGF system and insulin, among other factors, might also modulate adrenal androgen production. Furthermore, high concentrations of estradiol enhance basal and ACTH-stimulated DHEA-S production, while aromatase expression was observed in the human adrenal medulla but not in the ZR, suggesting that estrogens produced in the adrenal medulla might be involved in the regulation of androgen production in the ZR. Premature adrenarche might be associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovarian syndrome in females, as well as with insulin resistance in both sexes. However, many questions remain, transforming adrenal androgens into markers of diseases important for human health.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 53

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Developmental origins of health and disease.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Molecular biology of steroid hormone synthesis.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Clinical review: Identifying children at risk for polycystic ovary syndrome.

              Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appears to arise as a complex trait with contributions from both heritable and nonheritable factors. Polygenic influences appear to account for about 70% of the variance in pathogenesis. In view of this evidence for congenital contributions to the syndrome, childhood manifestations may be expected. The objective has been to review the evidence that risk factors for PCOS can be recognized in childhood. This study consisted of screening of the PCOS literature for articles pertaining to potential childhood and adolescent antecedents. Congenital virilizing disorders; above average or low birth weight for gestational age; premature adrenarche, particularly exaggerated adrenarche; atypical sexual precocity; or intractable obesity with acanthosis nigricans, metabolic syndrome, and pseudo-Cushing syndrome or pseudo-acromegaly in early childhood have been identified as independent prepubertal risk factors for the development of PCOS. During adolescence, PCOS may masquerade as physiological adolescent anovulation. Asymptomatic adolescents with a polycystic ovary occasionally (8%) have subclinical PCOS but often (42%) have a subclinical PCOS type of ovarian dysfunction, the prognosis for which is unclear. Identifying children at risk for PCOS offers the prospect of eventually preventing some of the long-term complications associated with this syndrome once our understanding of the basis of the disorder improves.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                November 2008
                30 September 2008
                : 70
                : 5
                : 257-267
                Affiliations
                Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital de Pediatría Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                157871 Horm Res 2008;70:257–267
                10.1159/000157871
                18824863
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 62, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Mini Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article