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      Modeling human arthritic diseases in nonhuman primates

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          Abstract

          Models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in laboratory animals are important tools for research into pathogenic mechanisms and the development of effective, safe therapies. Rodent models (rats and mice) have provided important information about the pathogenic mechanisms. However, the evolutionary distance between rodents and humans hampers the translation of scientific principles into effective therapies. The impact of the genetic distance between the species is especially seen with treatments based on biological molecules, which are usually species-specific. The outbred nature and the closer anatomical, genetic, microbiological, physiological, and immunological similarity of nonhuman primates to humans may help to bridge the wide gap between inbred rodent strain models and the heterogeneous RA patient population. Here we review clinical, immunological and pathological aspects of the rhesus monkey model of collagen-induced arthritis, which has emerged as a reproducible model of human RA in nonhuman primates.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology.

          Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. However, as 65 million years of evolution might suggest, there are significant differences. Here we outline known discrepancies in both innate and adaptive immunity, including: balance of leukocyte subsets, defensins, Toll receptors, inducible NO synthase, the NK inhibitory receptor families Ly49 and KIR, FcR, Ig subsets, the B cell (BLNK, Btk, and lambda5) and T cell (ZAP70 and common gamma-chain) signaling pathway components, Thy-1, gammadelta T cells, cytokines and cytokine receptors, Th1/Th2 differentiation, costimulatory molecule expression and function, Ag-presenting function of endothelial cells, and chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. We also provide examples, such as multiple sclerosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, where complex multicomponent processes differ. Such differences should be taken into account when using mice as preclinical models of human disease.
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            Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

             G Panayi,  Hyon Choy (2001)
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              TRANCE/RANKL knockout mice are protected from bone erosion in a serum transfer model of arthritis.

              There is considerable evidence that osteoclasts are involved in the pathogenesis of focal bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. Tumor necrosis factor-related activation-induced cytokine, also known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (TRANCE/RANKL) is an essential factor for osteoclast differentiation. In addition to its role in osteoclast differentiation and activation, TRANCE/RANKL also functions to augment T-cell dendritic cell cooperative interactions. To further evaluate the role of osteoclasts in focal bone erosion in arthritis, we generated inflammatory arthritis in the TRANCE/RANKL knockout mouse using a serum transfer model that bypasses the requirement for T-cell activation. These animals exhibit an osteopetrotic phenotype characterized by the absence of osteoclasts. Inflammation, measured by clinical signs of arthritis and histopathological scoring, was comparable in wild-type and TRANCE/RANKL knockout mice. Microcomputed tomography and histopathological analysis demonstrated that the degree of bone erosion in TRANCE/RANKL knockout mice was dramatically reduced compared to that seen in control littermate mice. In contrast, cartilage erosion was present in both control littermate and TRANCE/RANKL knockout mice. These results confirm the central role of osteoclasts in the pathogenesis of bone erosion in arthritis and demonstrate distinct mechanisms of cartilage destruction and bone erosion in this animal model of arthritis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arthritis Res Ther
                Arthritis Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1478-6354
                1478-6362
                2005
                9 June 2005
                : 7
                : 4
                : 145-154
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departments of Immunobiology and Comparative Genetics, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
                Article
                ar1773
                10.1186/ar1773
                1175046
                15987497
                Copyright © 2005 BioMed Central Ltd
                Categories
                Review

                Orthopedics

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