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      Expression and Clinical Significance of Ki67 and SOX2 in Colorectal Cancer


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          The purpose of the paper is to explore the expression levels and clinical significance of Ki67 and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) in colorectal cancer. From January 2013 to December 2016, 176 patients with colorectal cancer who were pathologically diagnosed after surgery in the Department of General Surgery in Xiamen Chinese Medical Hospital are included in this study. The pathological parameters, including gender, age, pathological stage, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis, are recorded. Immunohistochemistry is used to detect the correlation between Ki67 and Sox2 protein expression and clinicopathological parameters in colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry shows that in each stage of colorectal cancer, the positive rate of SOX2 is higher than that of Ki67, and the sensitivity of SOX2 is relatively high. Moreover, the levels of Ki67 and SOX2 in the cancerous tissues are not related to gender, age, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis ( p > 0.05).

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          Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000–14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37 513 025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries

          In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014.
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            Determining Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Starting Age of Screening Based on Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Factors

            Background & Aims Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. Methods We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy findings for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening, in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program registry. Results In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an AUC value of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.62–0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.61–0.63) for women; AUC values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. Conclusions We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.
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              Sox2: a possible driver of the basal-like phenotype in sporadic breast cancer.

              Tumours arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and sporadic basal-like breast carcinomas have similar phenotypic, immunohistochemical and clinical characteristics. SOX2 is an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q, a region frequently gained in sporadic basal-like and BRCA1 germline mutated tumours. The aim of the study was to establish whether sox2 expression was related to basal-like sporadic breast tumours. Two hundred and twenty-six sporadic node-negative invasive breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), CK5/6, EGFR, vimentin, HER2, ki67, p53 and sox2 using tissue microarrays. Tumours were considered to have basal-like phenotype if they were ER/HER2-negative and CK5/6 and/or EGFR-positive. Thirty cases of this series (13.7%) displayed a basal-like phenotype. Sox2 expression was observed in 16.7% of cases and was significantly more frequently expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas (43.3% in basal-like, 10.6% in luminal and 13.3% in HER2+ tumours, P<0.001). Moreover, Sox2 showed a statistically significant inverse association with ER and PR (P=0.001 and 0.017, respectively) and direct association with CK5/6, EGFR and vimentin (P=0.022, 0.005 and <0.001, respectively). Sox2 is preferentially expressed in tumours with basal-like phenotype and may play a role in defining their less differentiated/'stem cell' phenotypic characteristics.

                Author and article information

                J Healthc Eng
                J Healthc Eng
                Journal of Healthcare Engineering
                7 July 2023
                : 2023
                : 3783631
                1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xiamen Humanity Hospital Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361000, China
                2The Third Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ali Kashif Bashir

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Bo Hu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 11 February 2022
                : 28 March 2022
                Research Article


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