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      Relationship Between Oxidized LDL, IgM, and IgG Autoantibodies to ox-LDL Levels With Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Swedish Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction

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      Angiology

      SAGE Publications

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          The oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis: the role of oxidized phospholipids and HDL.

          For more than two decades, there has been continuing evidence of lipid oxidation playing a central role in atherogenesis. The oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis has evolved to focus on specific proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids that result from the oxidation of LDL phospholipids containing arachidonic acid and that are recognized by the innate immune system in animals and humans. These oxidized phospholipids are largely generated by potent oxidants produced by the lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase pathways. The failure of antioxidant vitamins to influence clinical outcomes may have many explanations, including the inability of vitamin E to prevent the formation of these oxidized phospholipids and other lipid oxidation products of the myeloperoxidase pathway. Preliminary data suggest that the oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis and the reverse cholesterol transport hypothesis of atherogenesis may have a common biological basis. The levels of specific oxidized lipids in plasma and lipoproteins, the levels of antibodies to these lipids, and the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may be useful markers of susceptibility to atherogenesis. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-I mimetic peptides may both promote a reduction in oxidized lipids and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and therefore may have therapeutic potential.
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            Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease.

            Lp(a) lipoprotein binds proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. We investigated whether levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) measured with use of monoclonal antibody E06 reflect the presence and extent of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter. Levels of oxidized LDL and Lp(a) lipoprotein were measured in a total of 504 patients immediately before coronary angiography. Levels of oxidized LDL are reported as the oxidized phospholipid content per particle of apolipoprotein B-100 (oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio). Measurements of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were skewed toward lower values, and the values for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio correlated strongly with those for Lp(a) lipoprotein (r=0.83, P<0.001). In the entire cohort, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels showed a strong and graded association with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (i.e., the number of vessels with a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter) (P<0.001). Among patients 60 years of age or younger, those in the highest quartiles for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels had odds ratios for coronary artery disease of 3.12 (P<0.001) and 3.64 (P<0.001), respectively, as compared with patients in the lowest quartile. The combined effect of hypercholesterolemia and being in the highest quartiles of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio (odds ratio, 16.8; P<0.001) and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels (odds ratio, 14.2; P<0.001) significantly increased the probability of coronary artery disease among patients 60 years of age or younger. In the entire study group, the association of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio with obstructive coronary artery disease was independent of all clinical and lipid measures except one, Lp(a) lipoprotein. However, among patients 60 years of age or younger, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio remained an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL are strongly associated with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, particularly in patients 60 years of age or younger. These data suggest that the atherogenicity of Lp(a) lipoprotein may be mediated in part by associated proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Monoclonal autoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins.

              We recently cloned monoclonal IgM autoantibodies which bind to epitopes of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) from apoE-deficient mice (EO- autoantibodies). We now demonstrate that those EO- autoantibodies that were originally selected for binding to copper-oxidized low-density lipoproteins (CuOx-LDL), also bound both to the oxidized protein and to the oxidized lipid moieties of CuOx-LDL. The same EO- autoantibodies showed specific binding to products of oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) and to the specific oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-phosphatidyl-choline (POVPC), whereas oxidation of fatty acids (linoleic or arachidonic acid) or cholesteryl esters (cholesteryl-oleate or cholesteryl-linoleate) did not yield any binding activity. Those EO- autoantibodies that bound to oxidized phospholipids (e.g., EO6) inhibited the binding and degradation of CuOx-LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages up to 91%, whereas other IgM EO- autoantibodies, selected for binding to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL, had no influence on binding of either CuOx-LDL or MDA-LDL by macrophages. F(ab')2 fragments of EO6 were equally effective as the intact EO6 in preventing the binding of CuOx-LDL by macrophages. The molar ratios of IgM to LDL needed to maximally inhibit the binding varied from approximately 8 to 25 with different CuOx-LDL preparations. Finally, a POVPC-bovine serum albumin (BSA) adduct also inhibited CuOx-LDL uptake by macrophages. These data suggest that oxidized phospholipid epitopes, present either as lipids or as lipid-protein adducts, represent one class of ligands involved in the recognition of OxLDL by macrophages, and that apoE-deficient mice have IgM autoantibodies that can bind to these neoepitopes and inhibit OxLDL uptake.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angiology
                Angiology
                SAGE Publications
                0003-3197
                1940-1574
                March 21 2014
                November 27 2013
                : 65
                : 10
                : 932-936
                Article
                10.1177/0003319713512720
                © 2013

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