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Strong expression of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 independently predicts shortened disease-free survival in patients with early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma

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      The polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-Ts) family of enzymes regulates the critical initial steps of mucin-type O-glycosylation. Among GalNAc-Ts that may significantly influence cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, invasion, and/or metastasis, GalNAc-T3 exhibits a high expression in several human cancers, closely associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis. However, the expression pattern of GalNAc-T3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains obscure. Since postoperative recurrence of even early stage OSCC (ESOSCC) occurs at an early phase, significantly affecting their clinical course and worse outcome, the identification of clinically significant accurate biomarkers is needed. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between the immunohistochemical GalNAc-T3 expression and various clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence using 110 paraffin-embedded tumor samples obtained from patients with surgically resected ESOSCC (T1–2N0). Recurrence was recognized in 37 of 110 (33.6 %) patients. The GalNAc-T3 expression was considered to be strongly positive when 20 % or more of the cancer cells showed positive cytoplasmic staining. Consequently, a strong expression of GalNAc-T3 was observed in 40 patients (36.4 %), showing a close relationship to poor differentiation, the presence of lymphatic and vascular invasion, and recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses further demonstrated that the patients with a strong GalNAc-T3+ status had markedly lower disease-free survival (DFS) rates, especially within the first 2 years postoperatively. Therefore, GalNAc-T3 might play a role in the pathogenesis of ESOSCC recurrence, and its immunohistochemical detection potentially predicts a shorter DFS and may be a useful parameter for providing clinical management against ESOSCC in the early postoperative phase.

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          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

           Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website ( and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.

            Author and article information

            [ ]Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, University Hospital of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Department of Occupational Pneumology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Department of Second Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Department of Health Policy and Management, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Second Department of Surgery, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Shared-Use Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Japan
            [ ]Laboratory of Pathology, Fukuoka Wajiro Hospital, Fukuoka, 811-0213 Japan
            [ ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Field of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Advanced Therapeutics Course, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-8520 Japan
            [ ]Asahi-Matsumoto Hospital, Kitakyushu, 800-0242 Japan
            [ ]Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, 8010 Austria
            [ ]Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, 8010 Austria
            ORCID:, 81-93-691-7240 ,
            Tumour Biol
            Tumour Biol
            Tumour Biology
            Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
            22 August 2015
            22 August 2015
            January 2016
            : 37
            : 1
            : 1357-1368
            26296622 4841842 3928 10.1007/s13277-015-3928-7
            © The Author(s) 2015

            Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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            © International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2016


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