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Growth and survival of reared Cambodian field crickets (Teleogryllus testaceus) fed weeds, agricultural and food industry by-products

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      Abstract

      This study evaluated survival and growth of Cambodian field crickets (Teleogryllus testaceus) during captivity when fed a set of local weed species, agricultural and food industry by-products. Wild individuals were caught at two locations in Cambodia, kept in pens and fed commercial chicken feed until the second generation off-spring hatched. First larval stage nymphs from this generation were collected and used in a 70-day feeding trial with one control treatment (chicken feed) and 12 experimental treatments (rice bran, cassava plant tops, water spinach, spent grain, residue from mungbean sprout production, and Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis, Cleome rutidosperma, Cleome viscosa, Boerhavia diffusa and Synedrela nodiflora). The crickets were kept in plastic cages and feed intake, weight and survival of crickets were recorded weekly. Overall survival did not differ between chicken feed and the experimental treatments with the exception of crickets fed B. diffusa, which had lower survival. From day 35 to day 49, survival on A. sessilis was also lower (P<0.05) than on chicken feed. There was no difference in weight between crickets fed chicken feed, cassava tops and C. rutidosperma. However, crickets fed A. sessilis, A. spinosus and B. diffusa weighed less than those fed chicken feed already at day 21. The feed conversion rate ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 and was ≤1.9 in crickets fed chicken feed, cassava plant tops and C. rutidosperma. Thus this study shows that it is possible, using simple means, to rear Cambodian field crickets. Cassava plant tops and C. rutidosperma both have great potential as cricket feed and the other weeds, with the exception of A. sessilis, A. spinosus and B. diffusa, agricultural and food industry by-products tested, also showed potential.

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      State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed

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        Crickets Are Not a Free Lunch: Protein Capture from Scalable Organic Side-Streams via High-Density Populations of Acheta domesticus

        It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p 99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.
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          Effects of acclimation temperature on thermal tolerance, locomotion performance and respiratory metabolism in Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

          The effects of acclimation temperature on insect thermal performance curves are generally poorly understood but significant for understanding responses to future climate variation and the evolution of these reaction norms. Here, in Acheta domesticus, we examine the physiological effects of 7-9 days acclimation to temperatures 4 degrees C above and below optimum growth temperature of 29 degrees C (i.e. 25, 29, 33 degrees C) for traits of resistance to thermal extremes, temperature-dependence of locomotion performance (jumping distance and running speed) and temperature-dependence of respiratory metabolism. We also examine the effects of acclimation on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) enzyme activity. Chill coma recovery time (CRRT) was significantly reduced from 38 to 13min with acclimation at 33-25 degrees C, respectively. Heat knockdown resistance was less responsive than CCRT to acclimation, with no significant effects of acclimation detected for heat knockdown times (25 degrees C: 18.25, 29 degrees C: 18.07, 33 degrees C: 25.5min). Thermal optima for running speed were higher (39.4-40.6 degrees C) than those for jumping performance (25.6-30.9 degrees C). Acclimation temperature affected jumping distance but not running speed (general linear model, p=0.0075) although maximum performance (U(MAX)) and optimum temperature (T(OPT)) of the performance curves showed small or insignificant effects of acclimation temperature. However, these effects were sensitive to the method of analysis since analyses of T(OPT), U(MAX) and the temperature breadth (T(BR)) derived from non-linear curve-fitting approaches produced high inter-individual variation within acclimation groups and reduced variation between acclimation groups. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) was positively related to body mass and test temperature. Acclimation temperature significantly influenced the slope of the SMR-temperature reaction norms, whereas no variation in the intercept was found. The CCO enzyme activity remained unaffected by thermal acclimation. Finally, high temperature acclimation resulted in significant increases in mortality (60-70% at 33 degrees C vs. 20-30% at 25 and 29 degrees C). These results suggest that although A. domesticus may be able to cope with low temperature extremes to some degree through phenotypic plasticity, population declines with warmer mean temperatures of only a few degrees are likely owing to the limited plasticity of their performance curves. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ 1 ] Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, P.O. Box 7011, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
            [ 2 ] Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development, CelAgrid, P.O. Box 2423, Phnom Penh 3, Cambodia.
            [ 3 ] Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
            [ 4 ] Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, P.O. Box 7024, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
            Author notes
            Journal
            jiff
            Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
            Wageningen Academic Publishers
            2352-4588
            24 October 2016
            : 2
            : 4
            : 285-292
            © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers

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