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      Emergence and Spread of A Plasmid-Mediated Polymyxin Resistance Mechanism, MCR-1: Are Bacteria Winning?

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          Detection of mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from human bloodstream infection and imported chicken meat, Denmark 2015.

          The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from a Danish patient with bloodstream infection and in five E. coli isolates from imported chicken meat. One isolate from chicken meat belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST131. In addition to IncI2, an incX4 replicon was found to be linked to mcr-1. This report follows a recent detection of mcr-1 in E. coli from animals, food and humans in China.
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            Dissemination of the multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli O25b-ST131 clone and the role of house crow (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh.

            Two hundred and thirty-eight faecal samples from crows foraging on hospital wastes were analysed for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. ESBL-producing crow isolates were characterized and compared with 31 patient isolates. Among the crows, 59% carried ESBL producers. These included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter cloacae harbouring the genes for CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79, and CTX-M-14. Human isolates carried only the CTX-M-15 gene. Two-thirds of crow E. coli isolates and all human E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Crows and patients shared E. coli sequence types, including the epidemic E. coli O25b-ST131 clone. The scavenging behaviour of crows at poorly managed hospital waste dumps made them potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, including ESBLs.
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              Molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and the prevalence of ST131 subclone H30 in Shanghai, China.

              The molecular characteristics and epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli (CPEC) isolates from Shanghai, China, were investigated using 21 imipenem-resistant E. coli isolates obtained from a Shanghai teaching hospital from 2011 to 2014. The presence of bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-48, and bla NDM was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. CPEC isolates were characterized by the Etest®, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmids carrying resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, replicon typing, plasmid MLST (pMLST), S1 nuclease PFGE (S1-PFGE), and Southern hybridization. The genetic environment of the resistance genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Among the 21 E. coli isolates, 16 produced carbapenemases; of these, ten isolates transferred carbapenemase-encoding plasmids to recipient bacteria. Nine of the 16 isolates were clonally related, and their PFGE patterns were designated type A. ST131 was the predominant sequence type (11 isolates, 68.8 %); the H30 subclone comprised 81.8 % of the ST131 strains. In all three isolates, bla IMP-4 was located on 50-kb IncN plasmids. All but two bla KPC-2 genes were carried on IncF plasmids of various sizes. Hence, both clone-spread and horizontal transfer mediated the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing genes in the Shanghai isolates.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                International Biological and Medical Journals Publishing House Co., Limited (Room E16, 3/f, Yongda Commercial Building, No.97, Bonham Stand (Sheung Wan), HongKong )
                2411-2917
                30 December 2015
                30 December 2015
                : 1
                : 2
                : 56
                Affiliations
                From Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Beijing 100010, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Chao Yang, Email: wishyc5@ 123456163.com .
                Article
                10.11979/idtm.201502001
                54f69198-bcb4-46f3-9010-75f7547fe7e5

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Medicine, Infectious disease & Microbiology

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