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      Being Heard, Exerting Influence, or Knowing How to Play the Game? Expectations of Client Involvement among Social and Health Care Professionals and Clients

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          Abstract

          Contemporary social and health care services exhibit a significant movement toward increasing client involvement in their own care and in the development of services. This major cultural change represents a marked shift in the client’s role from a passive patient to an active empowered agent. We draw on interaction-oriented focus group research and conversation analysis to study workshop conversations in which social and health care clients and professionals discussed “client involvement”. Our analysis focuses on the participants’ mutually congruent or discrepant views on the topic. The professionals and clients both saw client involvement as an ideal that should be promoted. Although both participant groups considered the clients’ experience of being heard a prerequisite of client involvement, the clients deviated from the professionals in that they also highlighted the need for actual decision-making power. However, when the professionals invoked the clients’ responsibility for their own treatment, the clients were not eager to agree with their view. In addition, in analyzing problems of client involvement during the clients’ and professionals’ meta-talk about client involvement, the paper also shows how the “client involvement” rhetoric itself may, paradoxically, sometimes serve to hinder here-and-now client involvement.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Service-dominant logic: continuing the evolution

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            Measuring patient-centered communication in patient-physician consultations: theoretical and practical issues.

            The goal of patient-centered communication (PCC) is to help practitioners provide care that is concordant with the patient's values, needs and preferences, and that allows patients to provide input and participate actively in decisions regarding their health and health care. PCC is widely endorsed as a central component of high-quality health care, but it is unclear what it is and how to measure it. PCC includes four communication domains: the patient's perspective, the psychosocial context, shared understanding, and sharing power and responsibility. Problems in measuring PCC include lack of theoretical and conceptual clarity, unexamined assumptions, lack of adequate control for patient characteristics and social contexts, modest correlations between survey and observational measures, and overlap of PCC with other constructs. We outline problems in operationalizing PCC, choosing tools for assessing PCC, choosing data sources, identifying mediators of PCC, and clarifying outcomes of PCC. We propose nine areas for improvement: (1) developing theory-based operational definitions of PCC; (2) clarifying what is being measured; (3) accounting for the communication behaviors of each individual in the encounter as well as interactions among them; (4) accounting for context; (5) validating of instruments; (6) interpreting patient ratings of their physicians; (7) doing longitudinal studies; (8) examining pathways and mediators of links between PCC and outcomes; and (9) dealing with the complexity of the construct of PCC. We discuss the use of observational and survey measures, multi-method and mixed-method research, and standardized patients. The increasing influence of the PCC literature to guide medical education, licensure of clinicians, and assessments of quality provides a strong rationale for further clarification of these measurement issues.
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              The meaning of patient involvement and participation in health care consultations: a taxonomy.

              A number of trends, pressures and policy shifts can be identified that are promoting greater patient involvement in health care delivery through consultations, treatments and continuing care. However, while the literature is growing fast on different methods of involvement, little attention has been given so far to the role which patients themselves wish to play, nor even of the conceptual meanings behind involvement or participation. This article reviews the current models of involvement in health care delivery as derived from studies of professional views of current and potential practice, prior to examining the empirical evidence from a large-scale qualitative study of the views and preferences of citizens, as patients, members of voluntary groups, or neither. Individual domiciliary interviews were carried out with 44 people recruited from GP practices in northern England. These respondents were then included in a second phase of 34 focus groups in 6 different localities in northern and southern England, of which 22 were with individuals unaffiliated to any voluntary/community groups, 6 related to local voluntary/community groups with specific interests in health or health care, and 6 related to groups without such specific interests. A final set of 12 workshops with the same samples helped to confirm emergent themes. The qualitative data enabled a taxonomy of patient-desired involvement to be derived, which is contrasted with professional-determined levels of involvement identified from the literature. Participation is seen as being co-determined by patients and professionals, and occurring only through the reciprocal relationships of dialogue and shared decision-making. Not everyone wanted to be involved and the extent to which involvement was desired depended on the contexts of type and seriousness of illness, various personal characteristics and patients' relationships with professionals. These levels are seen to provide basic building blocks for a more sophisticated understanding of involvement within and between these contexts for use by professionals, managers, policy-makers and researchers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                05 August 2020
                August 2020
                : 17
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 40, FI-00032 Helsinki, Finland; sari.kapykangas@ 123456ttl.fi
                [2 ]Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 54, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland; lise-lotte.uusitalo@ 123456helsinki.fi (L.-L.U.); melisa.stevanovic@ 123456helsinki.fi (M.S.)
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-17-05653
                10.3390/ijerph17165653
                7460515
                32764434
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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