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      Antimicrobial Actions and Applications of Chitosan

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          Abstract

          Chitosan is a naturally originating product that can be applied in many areas due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and nontoxic properties. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of chitosan offers great commercial potential for this product. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan varies, because this activity is associated with its physicochemical characteristics and depends on the type of microorganism. In this review article, the fundamental properties, modes of antimicrobial action, and antimicrobial effects-related factors of chitosan are discussed. We further summarize how microorganisms genetically respond to chitosan. Finally, applications of chitosan-based biomaterials, such as nanoparticles and films, in combination with current clinical antibiotics or antifungal drugs, are also addressed.

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          A review of chitin and chitosan applications

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            Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review.

            Owing to its high biodegradability, and nontoxicity and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is widely-used as an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other natural polymers. To broaden chitosan's antimicrobial applicability, comprehensive knowledge of its activity is necessary. The paper reviews the current trend of investigation on antimicrobial activities of chitosan and its mode of action. Chitosan-mediated inhibition is affected by several factors can be classified into four types as intrinsic, environmental, microorganism and physical state, according to their respective roles. In this review, different physical states are comparatively discussed. Mode of antimicrobial action is discussed in parts of the active compound (chitosan) and the target (microorganisms) collectively and independently in same complex. Finally, the general antimicrobial applications of chitosan and perspectives about future studies in this field are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Peptidoglycan structure and architecture.

              The peptidoglycan (murein) sacculus is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria. Made of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides, the sacculus forms a closed, bag-shaped structure surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. There is a high diversity in the composition and sequence of the peptides in the peptidoglycan from different species. Furthermore, in several species examined, the fine structure of the peptidoglycan significantly varies with the growth conditions. Limited number of biophysical data on the thickness, elasticity and porosity of peptidoglycan are available. The different models for the architecture of peptidoglycan are discussed with respect to structural and physical parameters.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                15 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 13
                : 6
                : 904
                Affiliations
                Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan; d04b22004@ 123456ntu.edu.tw (C.-L.K.); r08b22027@ 123456ntu.edu.tw (F.-S.D.); r09b22012@ 123456ntu.edu.tw (C.-Y.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: chinghsuanlin@ 123456ntu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +88-62-3366-4449
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8894-6196
                Article
                polymers-13-00904
                10.3390/polym13060904
                7998239
                33804268
                5511ed87-f0bb-4877-afd5-36f8c23434fc
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 18 February 2021
                : 08 March 2021
                Categories
                Review

                chitosan,antimicrobial activity,physicochemical characteristics,nanoparticles,films

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