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      Stem cell treatment for avascular necrosis of the femoral head: current perspectives

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          Abstract

          Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. Although the exact pathophysiology of AVN has yet to be elucidated, the disease is characterized by a vascular insult to the blood supply of the femoral head, which can lead to collapse of the femoral head and subsequent degenerative changes. If AVN is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, it may be possible to attempt surgical procedures which preserve the hip joint, including decompression of the femoral head augmented with concentrated bone marrow. The use of autologous stem cells has shown promise in halting the progression of AVN of the femoral head, and subsequently preventing young patients from undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to review the current use of stem cells for the treatment of AVN of the femoral head.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

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            Idiopathic bone necrosis of the femoral head. Early diagnosis and treatment.

             P Ficat (1984)
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              Treatment of early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head with autologous implantation of bone marrow-derived and cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

              Treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) with autologous implantation of iliac crest bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, which contain tens of thousands of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), recently achieved a promising outcome. One hundred patients with early-stage ONFH were recruited and randomly assigned to BMMSC treatment or core decompression (CD) treatment. Each BMMSC-treated hip received femoral head (FH) implantation of 2×10(6) autologous subtrochanteric bone marrow-derived and ex vivo expanded BMMSCs. The radiographic stage of ONFH according to the Association Research Circulation Osseous classification, Harris hip score (HHS), and the volume of the necrotic lesion or the low signal intensity zone (LowSIZ) in the FH were assessed before and 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after the initial operation. Sixty months after the operation, only 2 of the 53 BMMSC-treated hips progressed and underwent vascularized bone grafting. In CD group, 7 hips lost follow-up, and 10 of the rest 44 hips progressed and underwent vascularized bone grafting (5 hips) or total hip replacement (5 hips). Compared with the CD group, BMMSC treatment significantly improved the HHS as well as decreased the volume of femoral head LowSIZ of the hips preoperatively classified at stage IC, IIB, and IIC (P<0.05, respectively; stage IIA, P=0.06, respectively). No complication was observed in both treatment groups. Ex vivo expansion of autologous BMMSCs can reliably provide a greater number of BMMSCs for FH implantation. This intervention is safe and effective in delaying or avoiding FH collapse, which may necessitate total hip replacement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stem Cells Cloning
                Stem Cells Cloning
                Stem Cells and Cloning : Advances and Applications
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-6957
                2014
                09 April 2014
                : 7
                : 65-70
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA
                [2 ]School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rafael J Sierra, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA, Tel +1 507 284 2511, Email sierra.rafael@ 123456mayo.edu
                Article
                sccaa-7-065
                10.2147/SCCAA.S36584
                3986287
                24744611
                © 2014 Houdek et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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