Amarnath R. Allu , † , ‡ , Sathravada Balaji † , Dilshat U. Tulyaganov ‡ , § , Glenn C. Mather ∥ , Fabian Margit ⊥ , María J. Pascual ∥ , Renée Siegel # , Wolfgang Milius ¶ , Jürgen Senker # , Dmitrii A. Agarkov ∇ , Vladislav V. Kharton ∇ , José M. F. Ferreira , ‡
28 September 2017
An assessment is undertaken for the formation of anorthite crystalline phase in a melilite-based glass composition (CMAS: 38.7CaO–9.7MgO–12.9Al 2O 3–38.7SiO 2 mol %), used as a sealing material in solid oxide fuel cells, in view of the detrimental effect of anorthite on the sealing properties. Several advanced characterization techniques are employed to assess the material after prolonged heat treatment, including neutron powder diffraction (ND), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 29Si and 27Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), and in situ Raman spectroscopy. ND, 29Si MAS-NMR, and 27Al MAS-NMR results revealed that both Si and Al adopt tetrahedral coordination and participate in the formation of the network structure. In situ XRD measurements for the CMAS glass demonstrate the thermal stability of the glass structure up to 850 °C. Further heat treatment up to 900 °C initiates the precipitation of melilite, a solid solution of akermanite/gehlenite crystalline phase. Qualitative XRD data for glass-ceramics (GCs) produced after heat treatment at 850 °C for 500 h revealed the presence of anorthite along with the melilite crystalline phase. Rietveld refinement of XRD data indicated a high fraction of glassy phase (∼67%) after the formation of crystalline phases. The 29Si MAS-NMR spectra for the CMAS-GC suggest the presence of structural units in the remaining glassy phase with a polymerization degree higher than dimer units, whereas the 27Al MAS-NMR spectra revealed that most Al 3+ cations exhibit a 4-fold coordination. In situ Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the formation of anorthite crystalline phase initiated after 240 h of heat treatment at 850 °C owing to the interaction between the gehlenite crystals and the remaining glassy phase.