Ruijing Zhang a , b , c , Jason Saredy g , Ying Shao a , Tian Yao j , Lu Liu g , Fatma Saaoud a , William Y. Yang d , Yu Sun a , Candice Johnson a , Charles Drummer IV a , Hangfei Fu a , Yifan Lu a , Keman Xu a , Ming Liu a , j , Jirong Wang a , Elizabeth Cutler a , i , Daohai Yu e , Xiaohua Jiang a , Yafeng Li c , Rongshan Li c , Lihua Wang b , Eric T. Choi f , g , h , Hong Wang g , h , Xiaofeng Yang a , g , h , ∗∗
20 February 2020
The molecular mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and CKD acceleration of cardiovascular and other tissue inflammations remain poorly determined.
We conducted a comprehensive data analyses on 7 microarray datasets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with CKD and ESRD from NCBI-GEO databases, where we examined the expressions of 2641 secretome genes ( SG).
1) 86.7% middle class (molecular weight >500 Daltons) uremic toxins (UTs) were encoded by SGs; 2) Upregulation of SGs in PBMCs in patients with ESRD (121 SGs) were significantly higher than that of CKD (44 SGs); 3) Transcriptomic analyses of PBMC secretome had advantages to identify more comprehensive secretome than conventional secretomic analyses; 4) ESRD-induced SGs had strong proinflammatory pathways; 5) Proinflammatory cytokines-based UTs such as IL-1β and IL-18 promoted ESRD modulation of SGs; 6) ESRD-upregulated co-stimulation receptors CD48 and CD58 increased secretomic upregulation in the PBMCs, which were magnified enormously in tissues; 7) M1-, and M2-macrophage polarization signals contributed to ESRD- and CKD-upregulated SGs; 8) ESRD- and CKD-upregulated SGs contained senescence-promoting regulators by upregulating proinflammatory IGFBP7 and downregulating anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 and telomere stabilizer SERPINE1/PAI-1; 9) ROS pathways played bigger roles in mediating ESRD-upregulated SGs (11.6%) than that in CKD-upregulated SGs (6.8%), and half of ESRD-upregulated SGs were ROS-independent.
Our analysis suggests novel secretomic upregulation in PBMCs of patients with CKD and ESRD, act synergistically with uremic toxins, to promote inflammation and potential disease progression. Our findings have provided novel insights on PBMC secretome upregulation to promote disease progression and may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for novel regimens for CKD, ESRD and their accelerated cardiovascular disease, other inflammations and cancers. (Total words: 279).