Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting side effect experienced by patients receiving treatment for cancer. Approximately 30–40% of patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy will develop CIPN and there is considerable variability in its severity between patients. It is often sensory-predominant with pain and can lead to long-term morbidity in survivors. The prevalence and burden of CIPN late effects will likely increase as cancer survival rates continue to improve. In this review, we discuss the approach to peripheral neuropathy in patients with cancer and address the clinical phenotypes and pathomechanisms of specific neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents.