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      Genetic diversity among Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax strains from Zambia and Ghana, based on cathepsin L-like gene Translated title: Diversité génétique des souches de Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax de Zambie et Ghana, basée sur le gène similaire à la cathepsine L

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          Understanding the evolutionary relationships of Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax genotypes between West Africa and Southern Africa can provide information on the epidemiology and control of trypanosomosis. Cattle blood samples from Zambia and Ghana were screened for T. vivax infection using specie-specific PCR and sequencing analysis. Substantial polymorphism was obtained from phylogenetic analysis of sequences of cathepsin L-like catalytic domains. T. vivax from Ghana clustered together with West African and South American sequences, while T. vivax from Zambia formed one distinct clade and clustered with East African and Southern African sequences. This study suggests existence of distinct genetic diversity between T. vivax genotypes from West Africa and Zambia as per their geographical origins.

          Translated abstract

          Comprendre les relations évolutives des génotypes de Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax d’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Sud peut fournir des informations sur l’épidémiologie et le contrôle de la trypanosomiase. Des échantillons de sang de bétail de Zambie et du Ghana ont été testés pour l’infection à T. vivax en utilisant une PCR spécifique à l’espèce et en analysant les séquences. Un polymorphisme substantiel a été obtenu par une analyse phylogénétique des séquences de domaines catalytiques similaires à la cathepsine L. T. vivax du Ghana était groupé avec les séquences d’Afrique de l’Ouest et d’Amérique du Sud, alors que T. vivax de Zambie formait un clade distinct et était groupé avec des séquences d’Afrique de l’Est et du Sud. Cette étude suggère l’existence d’une diversité génétique distincte des génotypes de T. vivax d’Afrique de l’Ouest et de Zambie en fonction de leurs origines géographiques.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Cysteine proteases of parasitic organisms.

          Cysteine proteases play numerous indispensable roles in the biology of parasitic organisms. Aside from previously known general catabolic functions and protein processing, cysteine proteases may be key to parasite immunoevasion, excystment/encystment, exsheathing and cell and tissue invasion. Parasite cysteine proteases are unusually immunogenic and have been exploited as serodiagnostic markers and vaccine targets. Although host homologues exist, parasite cysteine proteases have distinct structural and biochemical properties including, pH optima and stability, the alteration in peptide loops or domain extensions, diverse substrate specificity and cellular location. The disparate nature of parasite cysteine protease compared to the host orthologous proteins has opened opportunities for chemotherapy. This review will highlight recent research on the 'papain-like' class of cysteine proteases, the most abundant family, and the newly discovered class of asparaginyl-endopeptidases. Cysteine protease classification will be re-examined in light of the diversity uncovered within parasitic organisms.
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            Aiming to eliminate tsetse from Africa.

             John P Kabayo (2002)
            The problem of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa, where it represents a major constraint to socio-economic development. The East African form of sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense, is an acute and fatal disease, whereas the West African form, caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is generally more chronic and debilitating. The African governments have developed a new initiative, known as the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign, which seeks to employ an area-wide approach and appropriate fly suppression methods to eradicate tsetse from areas of tsetse infestation, at a time, to ultimately create tsetse-free zones.
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              Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America--characterization, relationships and diagnostic implications.

              We characterized sequences from genes encoding cathepsin L-like (CatL-like) cysteine proteases from African and South American isolates of Trypanosoma vivax and T. vivax-like organisms, and evaluated their suitability as genetic markers for population structure analysis and diagnosis. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences corresponding to CatL-like catalytic domains revealed substantial polymorphism, and clades of sequences (TviCatL1-9) were separated by large genetic distances. TviCatL1-4 sequences were from cattle isolates from West Africa (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) and South America (Brazil and Venezuela), which belonged to the same T. vivax genotype. T. vivax-like genotypes from East Africa showed divergent sequences, including TviCatL5-7 for isolates from Mozambique and TviCatL8-9 for an isolate from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of CatL-like gene data supported the relationships among trypanosome species reflected in the phylogenies based on the analysis of small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. The discovery of different CatL-like sequences for each genotype, defined previously by ribosomal DNA data, indicate that these sequences provide useful targets for epidemiological and population genetic studies. Regions in CatL-like sequences shared by all T. vivax genotypes but not by other trypanosomes allowed the establishment of a specific and sensitive diagnostic PCR for epidemiological studies in South America and Africa.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                01 July 2013
                : 20
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2013/01 )
                [1 ] Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University Kita 20, Nishi 10 Kita-ku, Sapporo Hokkaido 001-0020 Japan
                [2 ] National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI) P.O. Box 96 Tororo Uganda
                [3 ] Veterinary Services Department P.O. Box M161 Accra Ghana
                [4 ] Department of Paraclinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia P.O. Box 32379 Lusaka Zambia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: sugimoto@ 123456czc.hokudai.ac.jp
                parasite130019 10.1051/parasite/2013024
                © J. Nakayima et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 4
                Research Article

                trypanosoma vivax, trypanosomiasis, zambia, ghana


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