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A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

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      Abstract

      Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

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      For centuries, biologists have studied patterns of plant and animal diversity at continental scales. Until recently, similar studies were impossible for microorganisms, arguably the most diverse and abundant group of organisms on Earth. Here, we present a continental-scale description of soil bacterial communities and the environmental factors influencing their biodiversity. We collected 98 soil samples from across North and South America and used a ribosomal DNA-fingerprinting method to compare bacterial community composition and diversity quantitatively across sites. Bacterial diversity was unrelated to site temperature, latitude, and other variables that typically predict plant and animal diversity, and community composition was largely independent of geographic distance. The diversity and richness of soil bacterial communities differed by ecosystem type, and these differences could largely be explained by soil pH (r(2) = 0.70 and r(2) = 0.58, respectively; P < 0.0001 in both cases). Bacterial diversity was highest in neutral soils and lower in acidic soils, with soils from the Peruvian Amazon the most acidic and least diverse in our study. Our results suggest that microbial biogeography is controlled primarily by edaphic variables and differs fundamentally from the biogeography of "macro" organisms.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1iEES-Paris, UMR 7618 (IRD-UPMC-CNRS-INRA-Université Paris-Est, Université Paris 7), Centre IRD Bondy, France
            2Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Hanoi, Vietnam
            3Agriculture Land Research Center, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute Vientiane, Laos
            4Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, UMR 5563, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse, France
            Author notes

            Edited by: Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

            Reviewed by: Hèléne Montanié, Université de la Rochelle, France; Guillaume Constantin de Magny, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France; Patricia Licznar-Fajardo, University of Montpellier, France

            *Correspondence: Emma Rochelle-Newall, iEES-Paris, UMR 7618 (IRD-UPMC-CNRS-INRA-Université Paris-Est, Université Paris 7), Centre IRD, 32 avenue Henri Varagnat, F - 93143 Bondy Cedex, France emma.rochelle-newall@ 123456ird.fr

            This article was submitted to Aquatic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Microbiol
            Front Microbiol
            Front. Microbiol.
            Frontiers in Microbiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-302X
            17 April 2015
            2015
            : 6
            4400915
            10.3389/fmicb.2015.00308
            Copyright © 2015 Rochelle-Newall, Nguyen, Le, Sengtaheuanghoung and Ribolzi.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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            Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 150, Pages: 15, Words: 0
            Categories
            Microbiology
            Review

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