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      Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals

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          The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined.Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls ( P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti- T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) ( P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01).No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii.

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          Immunology of Toxoplasma gondii.

          Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite. Following oral infection the parasite crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier to disseminate throughout the body and establish latent infection in central nervous tissues. The clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurological disorders in immunocompromised individuals. Since the clinical presentation is diverse and depends, among other factors, on the immune status of the host, in the present review, we introduce parasitological, epidemiological, clinical, and molecular biological aspects of infection with T. gondii to set the stage for an in-depth discussion of host immune responses. Since immune responses in humans have not been investigated in detail the present review is exclusively referring to immune responses in experimental models of infection. Systemic and local immune responses in different models of infection are discussed, and a separate chapter introduces commonly used animal models of infection. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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            Ocular toxoplasmosis past, present and new aspects of an old disease.

            Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is considered the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis and is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting vision loss frequently incapacitates patients and places a considerable socio-economic burden on societies in particular in developing countries. Although, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is a world-wide phenomenon stark regional differences with regard to prevalence and presumably route of infection exist. This review will discuss our current clinical understanding of OT including typical and atypical manifestations, patient characteristics which influence the course of disease and treatment options. Even though, congenital and acquired OT are not regarded as separate entities, certain differences exist, which will be assessed and evaluated in detail. A strong focus is laid on the disease causing parasite T. gondii, since solving the mystery of OT aetiology and the development of improved therapies will not be possibly with clinical science alone, but rather requires a precise understanding of parasitological and immunological pathomechanisms. Additionally, the biology and genetics of T. gondii form the foundation for novel and sophisticated diagnostic methods. Scientific advances in the recent years have shed some light on the different role of T. gondii strains with regard to OT manifestation and severity of disease. Genetic and environmental factors influencing OT will be presented and commonalities between OT and toxoplasmic encephalitis will be briefly discussed. Furthermore, the laboratory tools to study OT are crucial in our understanding of OT. In vivo and in vitro experimental approaches will be summarised and evaluated extensively. Finally, a brief outlook is given in which direction OT research should be headed in the future.
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              Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city.

              There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. in total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (mean age 37 ± 16.1 yr) had IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies. Twenty (2.1%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. IgG levels of 13-99, 100-150, and >150 International Units (IU)/ml were found in 14 (23.7%), 3 (5.1%), and 42 (71.2%) anti- T. gondii IgG-positive participants, respectively. Prevalence of infection increased with age (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in participants born in Durango State than those born in other Mexican states (P < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of boar meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.13), and squirrel meat (adjusted OR  =  2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.09). in addition, infection was negatively associated with travel abroad (adjusted OR  =  0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.77), and salami consumption (adjusted OR  =  0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for T. gondii infection in general population in Durango City, and of an association of the consumption of boar meat with T. gondii infection. This study provides a basis for the design of successful preventive measures against T. gondii infection.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                1 December 2014
                16 December 2014
                : 4
                : 4 ( otherID: N2K345420864 )
                : 184-192
                [ 1 ] Juárez University of Durango State Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition Avenida Universidad S/N 34000 Durango Mexico
                [ 2 ] Juárez University of Durango State Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera-Damm” Avenida Universidad S/N 34000 Durango Mexico
                [ 3 ] Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado Clínica de Medicina Familiar Predio Canoas S/N 34079 Durango Mexico
                [ 4 ] Charité Medical School Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin Hindenburgdamm 27 D-12203 Berlin Germany
                [ 5 ] Roche Molecular Systems Medical and Scientific Affairs Pleasanton CA 94588 USA
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                animals,occupational exposure,infection,Mexico, Toxoplasma gondii ,epidemiology,seroprevalence


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