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      Synchronous Occurrence of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Duodenum and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Ileum in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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          Abstract

          A 64 year-old woman with steroid-dependent immune thrombocytopenia developed anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed the presence of a tumor, which was diagnosed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in the second portion of the duodenum. 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography showed an increased uptake mass in the pelvic cavity as well as in the duodenum. Though the duodenal tumor disappeared after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, the pelvic mass did not shrink in size. As a result, laparoscopic resection of the pelvic tumor was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Subsequently, the patient was treated with 2 more cycles of the chemotherapy. Eventually, thrombocytopenia completely resolved.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: the incidence, prevalence, clinical course, and prognostication in the preimatinib mesylate era--a population-based study in western Sweden.

          Recent breakthroughs regarding gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and their pathogenesis have redefined diagnostic criteria and have led to the development of molecularly targeted drug therapy. New treatment options mandate more accurate information regarding the incidence, prevalence, clinical behavior, and prognostic factors of GIST. All patients (n=1460) who potentially had GIST diagnosed from 1983 to 2000 in western Sweden (population, 1.3-1.6 million) were reviewed, and 288 patients with primary GIST were identified. The incidence and prevalence of GIST were determined, and predictive prognostic factors, including current risk-group stratifications, were analyzed statistically. Ninety percent of GISTs were detected clinically due to symptoms (69%) or were incidental findings at surgery (21%); the remaining 10% of GISTs were found at autopsy. Forty-four percent of symptomatic, clinically detected GISTs were categorized as high risk (29%) or overtly malignant (15%), with tumor-related deaths occurring in 63% of patients and 83% of patients, respectively (estimated median survival, of 40 months and 16 months, respectively). Tumor-related deaths occurred in only 2 of 170 of patients (1.2%) with very-low-risk, low-risk, or intermediate-risk tumors. The annual incidence of GIST was 14.5 per million. The prevalence of all GIST risk groups was 129 per million (31 per million for the high-risk group and the overtly malignant group). GIST has been under recognized: Its incidence, prevalence, and clinical aggressiveness also have been underestimated. Currently existing risk-group stratification systems based on tumor size and mitotic rate delineate GIST patients who have a poor prognosis. Prognostication in patients with GIST can be refined using a proposed risk score based solely on tumor size and proliferative index. Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
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            Rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for adults with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

            The role of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, in the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has not been determined. The effectiveness and side effects of this therapeutic modality were investigated in a cohort of 25 individuals with chronic ITP. All patients had ITP that had been resistant to between 2 and 5 different therapeutic regimens, including 8 patients who had already failed splenectomy. Patients were scheduled to receive intravenous rituximab at the dose of 375 mg/m(2) once weekly for 4 weeks. Rituximab infusion-related side effects were observed in 18 patients, but were of modest intensity and did not require discontinuation of treatment. A complete response (platelet count greater than 100 x 10(9)/L) was observed in 5 cases, a partial response (platelet count between 50 and 100 x 10(9)/L) in 5 cases, and a minor response (platelet count below 50 x 10(9)/L, with no need for continued treatment) in 3 cases, with an overall response rate of 52%. In 7 cases, responses were sustained (6 months or longer). In 2 patients with relapsed disease, repeat challenge with rituximab induced a new response. In patients with a complete or partial response, a significant rise in platelet concentrations was observed early during the course of treatment, usually 1 week after the first rituximab infusion. No clinical or laboratory parameter was found to predict treatment outcome, although there was a suggestion that women and younger patients have a better chance of response. In conclusion, rituximab therapy has a limited but valuable effect in patients with chronic ITP. In view of its mild toxicity and the lack of effective alternative treatments, its use in the setting of chronic refractory ITP is warranted. (Blood. 2001;98:952-957)
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              Occurrence of other malignancies in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

              Almost one-third of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are discovered incidentally during investigative or therapeutic procedures for unrelated diseases. In this regard, GISTs may coexist with different types of cancer, either synchronously or metachronously. The frequency of this association and the spectrum of neoplasms involved have not been sufficiently analyzed. We conducted a review of the literature and our own records for cases with sporadic GISTs and other malignancies, with emphasis on solid tumors. Neurofibromatosis 1 and Carney triad-associated tumors were excluded. Based on these data, there were 518 cancers in 486 GIST patients among 4813 cases with informative data. The overall frequency of second tumors in different series varied from 4.5% to 33% (mean, 13%). A total of 29 patients had multiple malignancies. GISTs of gastric location were most commonly involved with other neoplasms, reflecting their overall high frequency (60%) of all GISTs. The major types of GIST-associated cancers were gastrointestinal carcinomas (n=228; 47%), lymphoma/leukemia, (n=36; 7%), and carcinomas of prostate (n=43; 9%), breast (n=34; 7%), kidney (n=27; 6%), lung (n=26; 5%), female genital tract (n=25; 5%), and carcinoid tumors (n=13; 3%). Other cancers included soft tissue and bone sarcomas (n=15; 3%), malignant melanoma (n=12; 2%), and seminoma (n=6; 1%). Occurrence of collision tumors and metastases of carcinoma or sarcoma into a GIST (the latter noted in 4 cases) can be challenging diagnostic problems. The potential nonrandom association and causal relationship between GIST and other neoplasms remain to be investigated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intern Med
                Intern. Med
                10.2169/internalmedicine.55.6712
                Internal Medicine
                The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
                0918-2918
                1349-7235
                15 October 2016
                : 55
                : 20
                : 2951-2956
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hematology, Tenshi Hospital, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Tenshi Hospital, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Surgery, Tenshi Hospital, Japan
                Author notes

                Correspondence to Dr. Tohru Takahashi, tohrut@ 123456cocoa.ocn.ne.jp

                Article
                5109561
                27746431

                The Internal Medicine is an Open Access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view the details of this license, please visit ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Case Report

                lymphoma, gist, itp

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