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      Acetaminophen attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment through antioxidant activity

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          Abstract

          Background

          Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

          Methods

          A mouse model of LPS-induced cognitive impairment was established to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of APAP against LPS-induced cognitive impairment. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP half an hour prior to intracerebroventricular microinjection of LPS and every day thereafter, until the end of the study period. The Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function from postinjection days 1 to 3. Animal behavioural tests as well as pathological and biochemical assays were performed to evaluate LPS-induced hippocampal damage and the neuroprotective effect of APAP.

          Results

          Mice treated with LPS exhibited impaired performance in the Morris water maze without changing spontaneous locomotor activity, which was ameliorated by treatment with APAP. APAP suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation induced by LPS in the hippocampus. In addition, APAP increased SOD activity, reduced MDA levels, modulated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity and elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, APAP significantly decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice.

          Conclusions

          Our results suggest that APAP may possess a neuroprotective effect against LPS-induced cognitive impairment and inflammatory and oxidative stress via mechanisms involving its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and the subsequent apoptotic pathway.

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          Most cited references68

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          The glamour and gloom of glycogen synthase kinase-3.

          Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is now recognized as a key component of a surprisingly large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. These are used to control and direct the far-reaching influences of GSK3 on cellular structure, growth, motility and apoptosis. Dysregulation of GSK3 is linked to several prevalent pathological conditions, such as diabetes and/or insulin resistance, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, much effort is currently directed towards understanding the functions and control of GSK3, and identifying methods capable of diminishing the deleterious impact of GSK3 in pathological conditions.
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            Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis.

            Bcl-2 inhibits most types of apoptotic cell death, implying a common mechanism of lethality. Bcl-2 is localized to intracellular sites of oxygen free radical generation including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula, and nuclear membranes. Antioxidants that scavenge peroxides, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione peroxidase, countered apoptotic death, while manganese superoxide dismutase did not. Bcl-2 protected cells from H2O2- and menadione-induced oxidative deaths. Bcl-2 did not prevent the cyanide-resistant oxidative burst generated by menadione. Two model systems of apoptosis showed no increment in cyanide-resistant respiration, and generation of endogenous peroxides continued at an inherent rate that was unaltered by Bcl-2. Following an apoptotic signal, cells sustained progressive lipid peroxidation. Overexpression of Bcl-2 functioned to suppress lipid peroxidation completely. We propose a model in which Bcl-2 regulates an antioxidant pathway at sites of free radical generation.
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              Long-term consequences of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

              Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common in elderly patients after noncardiac surgery, but the consequences are unknown. The authors' aim was to determine the effects of POCD on long-term prognosis. This was an observational study of Danish patients enrolled in two multicenter studies of POCD between November 1994 and October 2000. The cohort was followed up from the date of surgery until August 2007. Cognitive function was assessed by a neuropsychological test battery at three time points: before, at 1 week after, and at 3 months after noncardiac surgery. Data on survival, labor market attachment, and social transfer payments were obtained from administrative databases. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compute relative risk estimates for mortality and disability, and the relative prevalence of time on social transfer payments was assessed by Poisson regression. A total of 701 patients were followed up for a median of 8.5 yr (interquartile range, 5.3-11.4 yr). POCD at 3 months, but not at 1 week, was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.38]; P = 0.01, adjusted for sex, age, and cancer). The risk of leaving the labor market prematurely because of disability or voluntary early retirement was higher among patients with 1-week POCD (hazard ratio, 2.26 [1.24-4.12]; P = 0.01). Patients with POCD at 1 week received social transfer payments for a longer proportion of observation time (prevalence ratio, 1.45 [1.03-2.04]; P = 0.03). Cognitive dysfunction after noncardiac surgery was associated with increased mortality, risk of leaving the labor market prematurely, and dependency on social transfer payments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zwxsjrz@163.com
                zjhlecture@163.com
                cjb2000@sina.com
                wangweimzk@hotmail.com
                wangdongxin@hotmail.com
                zxystudy@163.com
                18201087627@163.com
                freshstart301@163.com
                (+86)-10-66931619 , bcczyz@163.com
                (+86)-10-66938151 , wwdd1962@aliyun.com
                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central (London )
                1742-2094
                21 January 2017
                21 January 2017
                2017
                : 14
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 8894, GRID grid.414252.4, Anesthesia and Operation Center, , Chinese PLA General Hospital, ; 28th Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0379 7164, GRID grid.216417.7, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, , Central South University, ; Changsha, 410008 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 8894, GRID grid.414252.4, Department of Anesthesiology, , The General Hospital of the PLA Rocket Force, ; Beijing, 100088 China
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 1621, GRID grid.411472.5, Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care, , Peking University First Hospital, ; Beijing, 100034 China
                [5 ]Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Key laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, 27th Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100850 China
                Article
                781
                10.1186/s12974-016-0781-6
                5251335
                28109286
                554a9dc6-547a-4e65-b653-5029628f4960
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 10 September 2016
                : 16 December 2016
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81471119
                Award ID: 81371204
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Neurosciences
                acetaminophen,neuroprotective therapy,antioxidant activity,oxidative stress,neuroinflammation,memory impairment,apoptosis

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